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      Vector analysis: a tool for preventing the introduction of invasive alien species into protected areas

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      Nature Conservation

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Invasive alien species are the main agent of biodiversity loss in protected natural areas. Prevention is the most appropriate management tool for addressing this challenge, however, virtually all ongoing management efforts are focused on established populations. Although invasion processes include stochastic components, it is possible to compare the different vectors of introduction that operate in a particular area in terms of their potential to transport species of high risk of invasion efficiently and, once identified, to establish strategies of prevention, early detection and rapid action. This study proposes a system of prioritization of vectors of alien plant dispersal for optimizing the efforts for preventing invasion. The system was developed for the Ernesto Tornquist Provincial Park (province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), but it is directly applicable to other areas. Natural and anthropogenic vectors were evaluated and lists of the species potentially transported by each vector were elaborated according to the characteristics of their propagules. The system analyzes the relative importance of each vector according to: 1) the severity of the potential impact of transportable species, 2) the difficulty of controlling these species, and 3) the volume of transportable propagules. In the case under study, the maximum value of risk corresponds to cargo, followed by vehicles, streams, unintentional human transport, intentional human transport, wind and finally, animals. This analysis can lead to prevention strategies, mapping of dispersal routes and actions of early detection and rapid response.

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          Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica.

          Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species has been undertaken. Here we do so by sampling, identifying, and mapping the vascular plant propagules carried by all categories of visitors to Antarctica during the International Polar Year's first season (2007-2008) and assessing propagule establishment likelihood based on their identity and origins and on spatial variation in Antarctica's climate. For an evaluation of the situation in 2100, we use modeled climates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Scenario A1B [Nakićenović N, Swart R, eds (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK)]. Visitors carrying seeds average 9.5 seeds per person, although as vectors, scientists carry greater propagule loads than tourists. Annual tourist numbers (∼33,054) are higher than those of scientists (∼7,085), thus tempering these differences in propagule load. Alien species establishment is currently most likely for the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Recent founder populations of several alien species in this area corroborate these findings. With climate change, risks will grow in the Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctic coastal regions. Our evidence-based assessment demonstrates which parts of Antarctica are at growing risk from alien species that may become invasive and provides the means to mitigate this threat now and into the future as the continent's climate changes.
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            Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices

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              Seed dispersal of fleshy-fruited invasive plants by birds: contributing factors and management options

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Conservation
                NC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-3301
                1314-6947
                January 04 2018
                January 04 2018
                : 24
                : 43-63
                Article
                10.3897/natureconservation.24.20607
                © 2018

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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