This review aims to identify patterns of electrical signals identified using electroencephalography (EEG) linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and symptom dimensions. We filter EEG findings through a clinical lens, evaluating nuances in findings according to study criteria and participant characteristics. Within the EEG frequency domain, greater right than left parietal asymmetry in alpha band power is the most promising marker of PTSD symptoms and is linked to exaggerated physiological arousal that may impair filtering of environmental distractors. The most consistent findings within the EEG time domain focused on event related potentials (ERPs) include: 1) exaggerated frontocentral responses (contingent negative variation, mismatch negativity, and P3a amplitudes) to task-irrelevant distractors, and 2) attenuated parietal responses (P3b amplitudes) to task-relevant target stimuli. These findings suggest that some individuals with PTSD suffer from attention dysregulation, which could contribute to problems concentrating on daily tasks and goals in lieu of threatening distractors. Future research investigating the utility of alpha asymmetry and frontoparietal ERPs as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers or intervention targets are recommended.