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      Effects of Tart Cherry Juice on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Older Adults

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          Abstract

          Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The findings of our previous study suggest that 12 weeks consumption of tart cherry juice lowers the levels of systolic blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in older adults. The present study investigated the effects of tart cherry juice on blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In this randomized-controlled clinical trial, a total of 37 men and women between the ages of 65–80 were randomly assigned to consume 480 mL of tart cherry juice or control drink daily for 12 weeks. Several blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. After the 12 weeks intervention, tart cherry juice significantly increased the plasma levels of DNA repair activity of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase ( p < 0.0001) and lowered ( p = 0.03) the mean c-reactive protein (CRP) level compared to the control group. There was a significant group effect observed for plasma CRP ( p = 0.03) and malondialdehyde (MDA) ( p = 0.03), and a borderline significant group effect observed for plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) ( p = 0.07). Within group analysis showed that the plasma levels of CRP, MDA, and OxLDL decreased numerically by 25%, 3%, and 11%, respectively after 12 weeks of tart cherry juice consumption compared with corresponding baseline values. The present study suggests that the ability of tart cherry juice to reduce systolic BP and LDL cholesterol, in part, may be due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Larger and longer follow-up studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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          Most cited references38

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          Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

          Atherosclerosis is a multifocal, smoldering, immunoinflammatory disease of medium-sized and large arteries fuelled by lipids. Endothelial cells, leukocytes, and intimal smooth muscle cells are the major players in the development of this disease. The most devastating consequences of atherosclerosis, such as heart attack and stroke, are caused by superimposed thrombosis. Therefore, the vital question is not why atherosclerosis develops but rather why atherosclerosis, after years of indolent growth, suddenly becomes complicated with luminal thrombosis. If thrombosis-prone plaques could be detected and thrombosis averted, atherosclerosis would be a much more benign disease. Approximately 76% of all fatal coronary thrombi are precipitated by plaque rupture. Plaque rupture is a more frequent cause of coronary thrombosis in men (approximately 80%) than in women (approximately 60%). Ruptured plaques are characterized by a large lipid-rich core, a thin fibrous cap that contains few smooth muscle cells and many macrophages, angiogenesis, adventitial inflammation, and outward remodeling. Plaque rupture is the most common cause of coronary thrombosis. Ruptured plaques and, by inference, rupture-prone plaques have characteristic pathoanatomical features that might be useful for their detection in vivo by imaging. This article describes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, how it begets thrombosis, and the possibility to detect thrombosis-prone plaques and prevent heart attack.
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            Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

            The consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) in observational cohorts. The purpose of this study was to assess the strength of this association in a meta-analysis. Cohort studies were selected if they reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for coronary heart disease or mortality and if they presented a quantitative assessment of fruit and vegetable intake. The pooled RRs were calculated for each additional portion of fruit and/or vegetables consumed per day, and the linearity of the associations were examined. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis that consisted of 91,379 men, 129,701 women, and 5,007 CHD events. The risk of CHD was decreased by 4% [RR (95% CI): 0.96 (0.93-0.99), P = 0.0027] for each additional portion per day of fruit and vegetable intake and by 7% [0.93 (0.89-0.96), P < 0.0001] for fruit intake. The association between vegetable intake and CHD risk was heterogeneous (P = 0.0043), more marked for cardiovascular mortality [0.74 (0.75-0.84), P < 0.0001] than for fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [0.95 (0.92-0.99), P = 0.0058]. Visual inspection of the funnel plot suggested a publication bias, although not statistically significant. Therefore, the reported RRs are probably overestimated. This meta-analysis of cohort studies shows that fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with the risk of CHD. The causal mechanism of this association, however, remains to be demonstrated.
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              Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

              Epidemiologic studies report inconsistent findings on the association of fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective was to examine the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied 9608 adults aged 25-74 y participating in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study and free of cardiovascular disease at the time of their baseline examination between 1971 and 1975. Fruit and vegetable intake at baseline was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire. The incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease were obtained from medical records and death certificates. Over an average of 19 y, 888 strokes (218 fatal), 1786 ischemic heart disease events (639 fatal), 1145 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 2530 all-cause deaths were documented. Consuming fruit and vegetables > or = 3 times/d compared with <1 time/d was associated with a 27% lower stroke incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.95; P for trend = 0.01), a 42% lower stroke mortality (0.58; 0.33, 1.02; P for trend = 0.05), a 24% lower ischemic heart disease mortality (0.76; 0.56, 1.03; P for trend = 0.07), a 27% lower cardiovascular disease mortality (0.73; 0.58, 0.92; P for trend = 0.008), and a 15% lower all-cause mortality (0.85; 0.72, 1.00; P for trend = 0.02) after adjustment for established cardiovascular disease risk factors. We showed an inverse association of fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general US population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                22 January 2019
                February 2019
                : 11
                : 2
                : 228
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA; kristinacdavis1@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Value Institute, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE 19718, USA; zzhang@ 123456christianacare.org
                [3 ]Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; lyzha@ 123456smu.edu.cn
                [4 ]College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA; kirschne@ 123456udel.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: scchai@ 123456udel.edu ; Tel.: +1-302-831-7345
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3969-8912
                Article
                nutrients-11-00228
                10.3390/nu11020228
                6413159
                30678193
                371d11f4-b244-4e3c-b14d-d7ef85ae7d9d
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 28 November 2018
                : 14 January 2019
                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                cardiovascular risk factors,dietary intervention,inflammation,oxidative stress,polyphenols,tart cherry

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