The objective of this study was to assess whether there is PCR evidence for C. psittaci DNA in ocular adnexal lymphoma specimens collected in an academic institution in the U.S. This was a retrospective, single-center study of patients from 1994 - 2004. We used 28 ocular adnexal lymphoma biopsy specimens from adult patients, 16 control lymphoma specimens from patients with systemic lymphomas not involving the ocular adnexa, and five control benign adnexal tissue samples. The presence of C. psittaci DNA was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in each group. Two different assays were utilized: (1) conventional PCR/gel based assay targeting a 111-bp fragment of the 16S gene and (2) a real-time PCR assay amplifying a 148-bp portion of the 16S gene with detection via a specific fluorescent probe. Amplification was carried out to 60 cycles. Positive controls consisted of isolated DNA from C. psittaci strains VS1, CP3, and FP. A human DNA internal control was used to assess sample DNA quality and amplification success. Mean outcome measure was the presence of C. psittaci DNA. Using both assays, all patient samples in all categories yielded negative results. Both assays detected C. psittaci DNA from isolated strains. Internationally, Chlamydia psittaci has been associated with ocular adnexal lymphomas with great variability. Similar to several other recent studies in the USA, our study could not confirm the presence of C. psittaci in ocular adnexal lymphomas. Differences in the prevalence of C. psittaci infection in various geographic regions or technical differences in the application of the assays may underlie the variability in the association between C. psittaci and ocular adnexal lymphoma.