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      Patient-tailored antithrombotic therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention

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          Abstract

          Dual antiplatelet therapy has long been the standard of care in preventing coronary and cerebrovascular thrombotic events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but choosing the optimal treatment duration and composition has become a major challenge. Numerous studies have shown that certain patients benefit from either shortened or extended treatment duration. Furthermore, trials evaluating novel antithrombotic strategies, such as P2Y 12 inhibitor monotherapy, low-dose factor Xa inhibitors on top of antiplatelet therapy, and platelet function- or genotype-guided (de-)escalation of treatment, have shown promising results. Current guidelines recommend risk stratification for tailoring treatment duration and composition. Although several risk stratification methods evaluating ischaemic and bleeding risk are available to clinicians, such as the use of risk scores, platelet function testing , and genotyping, risk stratification has not been broadly adopted in clinical practice. Multiple risk scores have been developed to determine the optimal treatment duration, but external validation studies have yielded conflicting results in terms of calibration and discrimination and there is limited evidence that their adoption improves clinical outcomes. Likewise, platelet function testing and genotyping can provide useful prognostic insights, but trials evaluating treatment strategies guided by these stratification methods have produced mixed results. This review critically appraises the currently available antithrombotic strategies and provides a viewpoint on the use of different risk stratification methods alongside clinical judgement in current clinical practice.

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          Most cited references 86

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          Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome.

          Acute coronary syndromes arise from coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed thrombosis. Since factor Xa plays a central role in thrombosis, the inhibition of factor Xa with low-dose rivaroxaban might improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 15,526 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome to receive twice-daily doses of either 2.5 mg or 5 mg of rivaroxaban or placebo for a mean of 13 months and up to 31 months. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced the primary efficacy end point, as compared with placebo, with respective rates of 8.9% and 10.7% (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.96; P=0.008), with significant improvement for both the twice-daily 2.5-mg dose (9.1% vs. 10.7%, P=0.02) and the twice-daily 5-mg dose (8.8% vs. 10.7%, P=0.03). The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose of rivaroxaban reduced the rates of death from cardiovascular causes (2.7% vs. 4.1%, P=0.002) and from any cause (2.9% vs. 4.5%, P=0.002), a survival benefit that was not seen with the twice-daily 5-mg dose. As compared with placebo, rivaroxaban increased the rates of major bleeding not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (2.1% vs. 0.6%, P<0.001) and intracranial hemorrhage (0.6% vs. 0.2%, P=0.009), without a significant increase in fatal bleeding (0.3% vs. 0.2%, P=0.66) or other adverse events. The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose resulted in fewer fatal bleeding events than the twice-daily 5-mg dose (0.1% vs. 0.4%, P=0.04). In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome, rivaroxaban reduced the risk of the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Rivaroxaban increased the risk of major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage but not the risk of fatal bleeding. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer Healthcare; ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00809965.).
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            Reduced-function CYP2C19 genotype and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients treated with clopidogrel predominantly for PCI: a meta-analysis.

            Clopidogrel, one of the most commonly prescribed medications, is a prodrug requiring CYP450 biotransformation. Data suggest its pharmacologic effect varies based on CYP2C19 genotype, but there is uncertainty regarding the clinical risk imparted by specific genotypes. To define the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes among carriers of 1 (≈ 26% prevalence in whites) and carriers of 2 (≈ 2% prevalence in whites) reduced-function CYP2C19 genetic variants in patients treated with clopidogrel. A literature search was conducted (January 2000-August 2010) in MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EMBASE. Genetic studies were included in which clopidogrel was initiated in predominantly invasively managed patients in a manner consistent with the current guideline recommendations and in which clinical outcomes were ascertained. Investigators from 9 studies evaluating CYP2C19 genotype and clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel contributed the relevant hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for specific cardiovascular outcomes by genotype. Among 9685 patients (91.3% who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and 54.5% who had an acute coronary syndrome), 863 experienced the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; and 84 patients had stent thrombosis among the 5894 evaluated for such. Overall, 71.5% were noncarriers, 26.3% had 1 reduced-function CYP2C19 allele, and 2.2% had 2 reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles. A significantly increased risk of the composite end point was evident in both carriers of 1 (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.11-2.17; P = .01) and 2 (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.24-2.50; P = .002) reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles, as compared with noncarriers. Similarly, there was a significantly increased risk of stent thrombosis in both carriers of 1 (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.69-4.22; P < .0001) and 2 (HR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.75-9.02; P = .001) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles, as compared with noncarriers. Among patients treated with clopidogrel for percutaneous coronary intervention, carriage of even 1 reduced-function CYP2C19 allele appears to be associated with a significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, particularly stent thrombosis.
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              2017 ESC focused update on dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease developed in collaboration with EACTS

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur Heart J
                Eur Heart J
                eurheartj
                European Heart Journal
                Oxford University Press
                0195-668X
                1522-9645
                07 March 2021
                29 January 2021
                29 January 2021
                : 42
                : 10 , Focus Issue on Interventional Cardiology
                : 1038-1046
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences , Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands
                [2 ] Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht , Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands
                [3 ] Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital , Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein, the Netherlands
                [4 ] Department of Cardiology, Cardiocentro Ticino , Via Tesserete 48, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
                [5 ] Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital , Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
                [6 ] Department of Medical Sciences and Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University , Dag Hammarskjölds Väg 38, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
                [7 ] Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Maastricht , P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht, the Netherlands
                [8 ] Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis , Oosterparkstraat 9, 1091 AC Amsterdam, the Netherlands
                Author notes
                Corresponding author. Tel: +31 20 599 2379, Email: w.j.kikkert@ 123456olvg.nl
                Article
                ehaa1097
                10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1097
                8244639
                33515031
                © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 13
                Product
                Categories
                State of the Art Review
                Interventional Cardiology
                AcademicSubjects/MED00200

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