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      Nanoparticle penetration and transport in living pumpkin plants: in situ subcellular identification

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          Abstract

          Background

          In recent years, the application of nanotechnology in several fields of bioscience and biomedicine has been studied. The use of nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of substances has been given special attention and is of particular interest in the treatment of plant diseases. In this work both the penetration and the movement of iron-carbon nanoparticles in plant cells have been analyzed in living plants of Cucurbita pepo.

          Results

          The nanoparticles were applied in planta using two different application methods, injection and spraying, and magnets were used to retain the particles in movement in specific areas of the plant. The main experimental approach, using correlative light and electron microscopy provided evidence of intracellular localization of nanoparticles and their displacement from the application point. Long range movement of the particles through the plant body was also detected, particles having been found near the magnets used to immobilize and concentrate them. Furthermore, cell response to the nanoparticle presence was detected.

          Conclusion

          Nanoparticles were capable of penetrating living plant tissues and migrating to different regions of the plant, although movements over short distances seemed to be favoured. These findings show that the use of carbon coated magnetic particles for directed delivery of substances into plant cells is a feasible application.

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          Most cited references27

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          The water culture method of growing plants without soil

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            Mesoporous silica nanoparticles deliver DNA and chemicals into plants.

            Surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles can deliver DNA and drugs into animal cells and tissues. However, their use in plants is limited by the cell wall present in plant cells. Here we show a honeycomb mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) system with 3-nm pores that can transport DNA and chemicals into isolated plant cells and intact leaves. We loaded the MSN with the gene and its chemical inducer and capped the ends with gold nanoparticles to keep the molecules from leaching out. Uncapping the gold nanoparticles released the chemicals and triggered gene expression in the plants under controlled-release conditions. Further developments such as pore enlargement and multifunctionalization of these MSNs may offer new possibilities in target-specific delivery of proteins, nucleotides and chemicals in plant biotechnology.
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              Comparative pulmonary toxicity assessment of single-wall carbon nanotubes in rats.

              The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute lung toxicity of intratracheally instilled single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in rats. The lungs of rats were instilled either with 1 or 5 mg/kg of the following control or particle types: (1) SWCNT, (2) quartz particles (positive control), (3) carbonyl iron particles (negative control), (4) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + 1% Tween 80, or (5) graphite particles (lung tissue studies only). Following exposures, the lungs of PBS and particle-exposed rats were assessed using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid biomarkers and cell proliferation methods, and by histopathological evaluation of lung tissue at 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postinstillation. Exposures to high-dose (5 mg/kg) SWCNT produced mortality in ~15% of the SWCNT-instilled rats within 24 h postinstillation. This mortality resulted from mechanical blockage of the upper airways by the instillate and was not due to inherent pulmonary toxicity of the instilled SWCNT particulate. Exposures to quartz particles produced significant increases versus controls in pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity, and lung cell parenchymal cell proliferation indices. Exposures to SWCNT produced transient inflammatory and cell injury effects. Results from the lung histopathology component of the study indicated that pulmonary exposures to quartz particles (5 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent inflammatory responses, concomitant with foamy alveolar macrophage accumulation and lung tissue thickening at the sites of normal particle deposition. Pulmonary exposures to carbonyl iron or graphite particles produced no significant adverse effects. Pulmonary exposures to SWCNT in rats produced a non-dose-dependent series of multifocal granulomas, which were evidence of a foreign tissue body reaction and were nonuniform in distribution and not progressive beyond 1 month postexposure (pe). The observation of SWCNT-induced multifocal granulomas is inconsistent with the following: (1) lack of lung toxicity by assessing lavage parameters, (2) lack of lung toxicity by measuring cell proliferation parameters, (3) an apparent lack of a dose response relationship, (4) nonuniform distribution of lesions, (5) the paradigm of dust-related lung toxicity effects, (6) possible regression of effects over time. In addition, the results of two recent exposure assessment studies indicate very low aerosol SWCNT exposures at the workplace. Thus, the physiological relevance of these findings should ultimately be determined by conducting an inhalation toxicity study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biology
                BioMed Central
                1471-2229
                2009
                23 April 2009
                : 9
                : 45
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, (CIB) CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, E-28040, Madrid, Spain
                [2 ]Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, Edificio Interfacultativo II, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain
                [3 ]Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA)Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain
                [4 ]Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, CSIC, Alameda del Obispo s/n, Apdo, 4084, E-14080, Córdoba, Spain
                [5 ]School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham, UK
                [6 ]Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETS Ingenieros Agrónomos, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain
                Article
                1471-2229-9-45
                10.1186/1471-2229-9-45
                2680855
                19389253
                372b2506-8491-4d28-94e3-5d03f6e75928
                Copyright © 2009 Corredor et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 6 October 2008
                : 23 April 2009
                Categories
                Research Article

                Plant science & Botany
                Plant science & Botany

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