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      COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among Health Care Workers in the United States

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          Abstract

          Background: Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine will play a major role in combating the pandemic. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are among the first group to receive vaccination, so it is important to consider their attitudes about COVID-19 vaccination to better address barriers to widespread vaccination acceptance. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study to assess the attitude of HCWs toward COVID-19 vaccination. Data were collected between 7 October and 9 November 2020. We received 4080 responses out of which 3479 were complete responses and were included in the final analysis. Results: 36% of respondents were willing to take the vaccine as soon as it became available while 56% were not sure or would wait to review more data. Only 8% of HCWs do not plan to get vaccine. Vaccine acceptance increased with increasing age, education, and income level. A smaller percentage of female (31%), Black (19%), Lantinx (30%), and rural (26%) HCWs were willing to take the vaccine as soon as it became available than the overall study population. Direct medical care providers had higher vaccine acceptance (49%). Safety (69%), effectiveness (69%), and speed of development/approval (74%) were noted as the most common concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccination in our survey.

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          Most cited references 30

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          COVID-19 and Racial/Ethnic Disparities

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            Attitudes Toward a Potential SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine: A Survey of U.S. Adults

            Once a vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 becomes available, it will be important to maximize vaccine uptake and coverage. This national survey explores factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. The results suggest that multipronged efforts will be needed to increase acceptance of a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine.
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              Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in the US

              Background The COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely affect the U.S., which leads globally in total cases and deaths. As COVID-19 vaccines are under development, public health officials and policymakers need to create strategic vaccine-acceptance messaging to effectively control the pandemic and prevent thousands of additional deaths. Methods Using an online platform, we surveyed the U.S. adult population in May 2020 to understand risk perceptions about the COVID-19 pandemic, acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine, and trust in sources of information. These factors were compared across basic demographics. Findings Of the 672 participants surveyed, 450 (67%) said they would accept a COVID-19 vaccine if it is recommended for them. Males (72%) compared to females, older adults (≥55 years; 78%) compared to younger adults, Asians (81%) compared to other racial and ethnic groups, and college and/or graduate degree holders (75%) compared to people with less than a college degree were more likely to accept the vaccine. When comparing reported influenza vaccine uptake to reported acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine: 1) participants who did not complete high school had a very low influenza vaccine uptake (10%), while 60% of the same group said they would accept the COVID-19 vaccine; 2) unemployed participants reported lower influenza uptake and lower COVID-19 vaccine acceptance when compared to those employed or retired; and, 3) Black Americans reported lower influenza vaccine uptake and lower COVID-19 vaccine acceptance than all other racial groups reported in our study. Lastly, we identified geographic differences with Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) regions 2 (New York) and 5 (Chicago) reporting less than 50 percent COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Interpretation Although our study found a 67% acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine, there were noticeable demographic and geographical disparities in vaccine acceptance. Before a COVID-19 vaccine is introduced to the U.S., public health officials and policymakers must prioritize effective COVID-19 vaccine-acceptance messaging for all Americans, especially those who are most vulnerable.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Vaccines (Basel)
                Vaccines (Basel)
                vaccines
                Vaccines
                MDPI
                2076-393X
                03 February 2021
                February 2021
                : 9
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA; rshekhar@ 123456salud.unm.edu (R.S.); supadhyay@ 123456salud.unm.edu (S.U.); ebarrett@ 123456salud.unm.edu (E.B.); spal@ 123456salud.unm.edu (S.P.)
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44139, USA; mriganka.singh@ 123456uhhospitals.org
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Hospital Medicine, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA; kottewar@ 123456uthscsa.edu
                [4 ]Data Analyst, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA; hmir@ 123456salud.unm.edu
                Author notes
                Article
                vaccines-09-00119
                10.3390/vaccines9020119
                7913135
                33546165
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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                covid-19, vaccine, healthcare workers, united states

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