The three-dimensional ultrastructure of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in surgically resected human kidneys was observed by the quick-freezing and deep-etching method. In three layers of human GBM, the middle layer exhibited polygonal meshwork structures, which were composed of fine fibrils. In addition, the outer and inner layers were formed by lines of perpendicular fibrils, which connected the epithelial or endothelial cell surfaces with the meshwork structures of the middle layer. These ultrastructures might correspond to the three layers, such as lamina densa and laminae rara externa and interna, which were also observed on conventional ultrathin sections. It is concluded that the human GBM has the same meshwork structures and perpendicular fibrils as those previously observed in animals and that these structures may act functionally as size and/or charge barriers.