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      Proposed diagnostic criteria for compulsive buying-shopping disorder: A Delphi expert consensus study


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          Background and aims

          Consensus in acknowledging compulsive buying-shopping disorder (CBSD) as a distinct diagnosis has been lacking. Before research in this area can be advanced, it is necessary to establish diagnostic criteria in order to facilitate field trials.


          The study consisted of the following phases: (1) operationalization of a broad range of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD, (2) two iterative rounds of data collection using the Delphi method, where consensus of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD was reached by an international expert panel, and (3) interpretation of findings taking into account the degree of certainty amongst experts regarding their responses.


          With respect to diagnostic criteria, there was clear expert consensus about inclusion of the persistent and recurrent experience of (a) intrusive and/or irresistible urges and/or impulses and/or cravings and/or preoccupations for buying/shopping; (b) diminished control over buying/shopping; (c) excessive purchasing of items without utilizing them for their intended purposes, (d) use of buying-shopping to regulate internal states; (e) negative consequences and impairment in important areas of functioning due to buying/shopping; (f) emotional and cognitive symptoms upon cessation of excessive buying/shopping; and (g) maintenance or escalation of dysfunctional buying/shopping behaviors despite negative consequences. Furthermore, support was found for a specifier related to the presence of excessive hoarding of purchased items.


          The proposed diagnostic criteria can be used as the basis for the development of diagnostic interviews and measures of CBSD severity.

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          Most cited references65

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          A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework

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            Defining consensus: a systematic review recommends methodologic criteria for reporting of Delphi studies.

            To investigate how consensus is operationalized in Delphi studies and to explore the role of consensus in determining the results of these studies. Systematic review of a random sample of 100 English language Delphi studies, from two large multidisciplinary databases [ISI Web of Science (Thompson Reuters, New York, NY) and Scopus (Elsevier, Amsterdam, NL)], published between 2000 and 2009. About 98 of the Delphi studies purported to assess consensus, although a definition for consensus was only provided in 72 of the studies (64 a priori). The most common definition for consensus was percent agreement (25 studies), with 75% being the median threshold to define consensus. Although the authors concluded in 86 of the studies that consensus was achieved, consensus was only specified a priori (with a threshold value) in 42 of these studies. Achievement of consensus was related to the decision to stop the Delphi study in only 23 studies, with 70 studies terminating after a specified number of rounds. Although consensus generally is felt to be of primary importance to the Delphi process, definitions of consensus vary widely and are poorly reported. Improved criteria for reporting of methods of Delphi studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model for addictive behaviors: Update, generalization to addictive behaviors beyond Internet-use disorders, and specification of the process character of addictive behaviors


                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                13 April 2021
                July 2021
                July 2021
                : 10
                : 2
                : 208-222
                [1 ] Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School , Hanover , Germany
                [2 ] General Psychology: Cognition and Center for Behavioral Addiction Research (CeBAR), University of Duisburg-Essen , Germany
                [3 ] International University of Applied Sciences (IUBH) , Cologne , Germany
                [4 ] College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University , Adelaide , Australia
                [5 ] Órama Institute for Mental Health and Wellbeing, Flinders University , Adelaide , Australia
                [6 ] Research School of Psychology, The Australian National University , Canberra , Australia
                [7 ] Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Essen , Germany
                [8 ] Institute of Sociology, Technical University of Dresden , Dresden , Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author.E-mail: mueller.astrid@ 123456mh-hannover.de

                Shared first authorship.

                © 2021 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 66, Pages: 15

                compulsive buying-shopping disorder,compulsive buying,diagnostic criteria,delphi study,behavioral addiction,impulse control disorder


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