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      Combined Therapy of Cilazapril and Losartan Has No Additive Effects in Ameliorating Adriamycin-Induced Glomerulopathy

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          Aims: Effects of the blockade of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), type 1 angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), or a combination of both, were evaluated in Adriamycin (ADR)-induced glomerulopathy. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–250 g) were induced of glomerulopathy by treatment with ADR (2 mg/kg, i.v.). Six weeks later, they were treated with cilazapril (1 mg/kg/day) and/or losartan (10 mg/kg/day) for an additional 6 weeks. Results: The urinary excretion of protein progressively increased following the treatment with ADR, which was prevented by ACEi, ARB, and a combination of both. Similarly, the glomerulopathy assessed by glomerulosclerosis index was also ameliorated by ACEi or ARB. However, combined therapy of both ACEi and ARB was without an additional effect (Control 1.4 ± 0.4%, ADR 10.7 ± 2.7%**, ACEi 0.8 ± 0.4%, ARB 2.6 ± 1.0%, ACEi+ARB 1.7 ± 1.5%, ** p < 0.01 vs. Control). The expression of transforming growth factor-β<sub>1</sub> was increased following the treatment with ADR (1.4 ± 0.07-fold, p < 0.05 vs. Control), however, the degree of which was similarly blunted by either ACEi, ARB, or the combination of both. The expression of type 1 angiotensin II receptor mRNA increased following the treatment with ADR, the degree of which was further upregulated by ACEi and decreased by ARB to the control level (ADR 1.3 ± 0.06-fold*, ACEi 1.8 ± 0.05-fold***, ARB 1.0 ± 0.04-fold, * p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.001 vs. Control). The combined therapy of ACEi and ARB still showed an upregulation of type 1 angiotensin II receptor mRNA, however, of which degree was mitigated compared with that induced by ACEi alone (ACEi+ARB 1.5 ± 0.04-fold, ** p < 0.01 vs. Control). On the contrary, the expression of type 2 angiotensin II receptor mRNA was downregulated following the treatment with ADR, which was similarly restored to the control level by ACEi, ARB, and a combination of both (ADR 0.5 ± 0.08-fold**, ACEi 1.0 ± 0.06-fold, ARB 1.0 ± 0.05-fold, ACEi+ARB 1.0 ± 0.05-fold, ** p < 0.01 vs. Control). Conclusion: It is suggested that combined therapy of ACEi and ARB with relatively high or maximal doses of each drug has no additive or synergistic benefits on the progression of ADR-induced glomerulopathy. Effects of RAS blockade may in part be related to differential regulation of type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II receptors.

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          Suppression of experimental glomerulonephritis by antiserum against transforming growth factor beta 1.

          Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix within the damaged glomeruli, impaired filtration and proteinuria. In its progressive form, the disease destroys kidney function leading to uraemia and death, unless dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation is available. The pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is incompletely understood, but the eliciting factor is thought often to be an immunological injury to mesangial and/or other resident cells in the glomeruli. We have used an animal model of acute mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis to show that this disease is associated with increased production and activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), an inducer of extracellular matrix production. Here we report that administration of anti-TGF-beta 1 at the time of induction of the glomerular disease suppresses the increased production of extracellular matrix and dramatically attenuates histological manifestations of the disease. These results provide direct evidence for a causal role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathogenesis of the experimental disease and suggest a new approach to the therapy of glomerulonephritis.
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            Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial.

            Present angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor treatment fails to prevent progression of non-diabetic renal disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of combined treatment of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin-II receptor blocker, and monotherapy of each drug at its maximum dose, in patients with non-diabetic renal disease. 336 patients with non-diabetic renal disease were enrolled from one renal outpatient department in Japan. After screening and an 18-week run-in period, 263 patients were randomly assigned angiotensin-II receptor blocker (losartan, 100 mg daily), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril, 3 mg daily), or a combination of both drugs at equivalent doses. Survival analysis was done to compare the effects of each regimen on the combined primary endpoint of time to doubling of serum creatinine concentration or end-stage renal disease. Analysis was by intention to treat. Seven patients discontinued or were otherwise lost to follow-up. Ten (11%) of 85 patients on combination treatment reached the combined primary endpoint compared with 20 (23%) of 85 on trandolapril alone (hazard ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.63, p=0.018) and 20 (23%) of 86 on losartan alone (0.40, 0.17-0.69, p=0.016). Covariates affecting renal survival were combination treatment (hazard ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.63, p=0.011), age (1.30, 1.03-2.29, p=0.009), baseline renal function (1.80, 1.02-2.99, p=0.021), change in daily urinary protein excretion rate (0.58, 0.24-0.88, p=0.022), use of diuretics (0.80, 0.30-0.94, p=0.043), and antiproteinuric response to trandolapril (0.81, 0.21-0.91, p=0.039). Frequency of side-effects with combination treatment was the same as with trandolapril alone. Combination treatment safely retards progression of non-diabetic renal disease compared with monotherapy. However, since some patients reached the combined primary endpoint on combined treatment, further strategies for complete management of progressive non-diabetic renal disease need to be researched.
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              Targeting TGF-beta overexpression in renal disease: maximizing the antifibrotic action of angiotensin II blockade.

              Overproduction of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a key mediator of extracellular matrix accumulation in fibrotic diseases. We hypothesized that the degree of reduction of pathological TGF-beta expression can be used as a novel index of the antifibrotic potential of angiotensin II (Ang II) blockade in renal disease. One day after induction of Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis, rats were treated with increasing doses of the Ang I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril and/or the Ang II receptor blocker losartan in the drinking water. Six days after disease induction the therapeutic effect on glomerular TGF-beta overexpression was evaluated. Both enalapril and losartan reduced TGF-beta overproduction in a dose-dependent manner, showing a moderate reduction at doses known to control blood pressure in renal forms of hypertension. A maximal reduction in TGF-beta expression of approximately 45% was seen for both drugs starting at 100 mg/liter enalapril and 500 mg/liter losartan, with no further reduction at doses of enalapril up to 1000 mg/liter or losartan up to 2500 mg/liter. Co-treatment with both drugs was not superior to single therapy. Consistent with our hypothesis that reduction in TGF-beta expression is a valid target, other disease measures, including glomerular matrix accumulation, glomerular production and mRNA expression of the matrix protein fibronectin and the protease inhibitor plasminogen-activator-inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) closely followed TGF-beta expression. The data suggest that these therapies act through very similar pathways and that, in order to more effectively treat renal fibrosis, these drugs must be combined with other drugs that act by different mechanisms.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2004
                20 August 2004
                : 97
                : 4
                : p58-p65
                Departments of aInternal Medicine and bLaboratory Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri; Departments of cPathology and dAnatomy and Cell Biology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, and eChonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Gwangju, Korea
                79180 Nephron Physiol 2004;97:p58–p65
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 41, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/79180
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