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      Regulation of Differentiation and Function of Helper T Cells by Lymphocyte-Derived Catecholamines via α 1- and β 2-Adrenoceptors

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          Abstract

          Objective: Recently, we have reported that lymphocyte-derived endogenous catecholamines (CAs) facilitate a shift in the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance towards Th2. The purpose of this study was to explore the involvement of adrenoreceptors (ARs) in Th differentiation and function modulation by lymphocyte-derived CAs. Methods: Lymphocytes were separated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice, stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) and treated with pargyline, an inhibitor of CA degradation. Results: Pargyline downregulated the expression of Th1-relative factors, T-bet, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2, but upregulated the expression of Th2-relative factors, GATA-3, IL-4 and IL-10. Pargyline reduced the percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ cells and the CD4+IFN-γ+/CD4+IL-4+ cell ratio, although it did not alter the proportion of IL-4-producing CD4+ cells. In addition, the percentage of CD4+CD26+ T cells and the CD4+CD26+/CD4+CD30+ cell ratio were also reduced in the pargyline-treated group. Furthermore, Con A-activated T cells treated with pargyline produced a lower level of IFN-γ and a higher level of IL-4 than the control group. All these effects were blocked by the α<sub>1</sub>-AR antagonist corynanthine or the β<sub>2</sub>-AR antagonist ICI 118551, but not by the α<sub>2</sub>-AR antagonist yohimbine or β<sub>1</sub>-AR antagonist atenolol. Conclusions: These results imply that lymphocyte-derived CAs promote polarization of differentiation and function towards Th2 cells and that this effect is mediated by α<sub>1</sub>-AR and β<sub>2</sub>-AR.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells selectively express tyrosine hydroxylase and contain endogenous catecholamines subserving an autocrine/paracrine inhibitory functional loop.

          CD4+CD25+ regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) are specialized T cells playing a key role in the control of immune homeostasis. Here, we show that human Tregs constitutively express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.14.16.2), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, and contain substantial amounts of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are released upon treatment with reserpine. Catecholamine release results in reduced production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta by Tregs, and in down-regulation of Treg-dependent inhibition of effector T-lymphocyte (Teff) proliferation, which occurs without affecting the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interferon-gamma. Tregs and Teffs express on the cell membrane both D1-like and D2-like dopaminergic receptors to a similar extent (12%-29% of the cells). Catecholamine-dependent down-regulation of Tregs is, however, selectively reversed by pharmacological blockade of dopaminergic D1-like receptors, which in Tregs only (and not in Teffs) are also expressed at the level of mRNA and are functionally coupled to intracellular production of cAMP. These findings indicate that in human Tregs endogenous catecholamines subserve an autocrine/paracrine loop involving dopaminergic pathways and resulting in down-regulation of Treg function.
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            Discovery of endogenous catecholamines in lymphocytes and evidence for catecholamine regulation of lymphocyte function via an autocrine loop.

            Evidence has been obtained that catecholamines and their metabolites are present in single lymphocytes and extracts of T- and B-cell clones by use of capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase reduces observed catecholamine levels, suggesting catecholamine synthesis by lymphocytes. Intracellular dopamine levels are shown to be increased by extra-cellular dopamine, suggesting a cellular-uptake mechanism. Furthermore, incubation with either dopamine or L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a precursor of dopamine, results in a dose-dependent inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation. Together, these results suggest the presence of an autocrine loop whereby lymphocytes down-regulate their own activity.
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              Adrenergic modulation of immune cells: an update.

              Sympathoadrenergic pathways are crucial to the communication between the nervous system and the immune system. The present review addresses emerging issues in the adrenergic modulation of immune cells, including: the specific pattern of adrenoceptor expression on immune cells and their role and changes upon cell differentiation and activation; the production and utilization of noradrenaline and adrenaline by immune cells themselves; the dysregulation of adrenergic immune mechanisms in disease and their potential as novel therapeutic targets. A wide array of sympathoadrenergic therapeutics is currently used for non-immune indications, and could represent an attractive source of non-conventional immunomodulating agents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2015
                January 2015
                30 April 2014
                : 22
                : 3
                : 138-151
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong, China
                Author notes
                *Yu-Ping Peng and Yi-Hua Qiu, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001 (China), E-Mail yppeng@ntu.edu.cn and yhqiu@ntu.edu.cn
                Article
                360579 Neuroimmunomodulation 2015;22:138-151
                10.1159/000360579
                24800755
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Original Paper

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