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      Siltuximab (CNTO 328): a promising option for human malignancies

      ,

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove Medical Press

      interleukin-6, Castleman’s disease, clinical trials

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          Abstract

          Siltuximab (CNTO 328) is a promising antibody-drug conjugate targeting cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). It is highly binding to IL-6 and thus neutralizing IL-6 bioactivity and promoting death of tumor cell. In this review, we mainly focus on the mechanisms, clinical studies, and adverse effect of siltuximab in the treatment of human malignancies. We also provide our recommendations for siltuximab treatment in the future.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer.

          The mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer and the role that platelets play in abetting cancer growth are unclear. We analyzed clinical data on 619 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer to test associations between platelet counts and disease outcome. Human samples and mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis. The effects of platelets on tumor growth and angiogenesis were ascertained. Thrombocytosis was significantly associated with advanced disease and shortened survival. Plasma levels of thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated in patients who had thrombocytosis as compared with those who did not. In mouse models, increased hepatic thrombopoietin synthesis in response to tumor-derived interleukin-6 was an underlying mechanism of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis. Tumor-derived interleukin-6 and hepatic thrombopoietin were also linked to thrombocytosis in patients. Silencing thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 abrogated thrombocytosis in tumor-bearing mice. Anti-interleukin-6 antibody treatment significantly reduced platelet counts in tumor-bearing mice and in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, neutralizing interleukin-6 significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel in mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of an antiplatelet antibody to halve platelet counts in tumor-bearing mice significantly reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. These findings support the existence of a paracrine circuit wherein increased production of thrombopoietic cytokines in tumor and host tissue leads to paraneoplastic thrombocytosis, which fuels tumor growth. We speculate that countering paraneoplastic thrombocytosis either directly or indirectly by targeting these cytokines may have therapeutic potential. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
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            Siltuximab for multicentric Castleman's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

            Multicentric Castleman's disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder driven by dysregulated production of interleukin 6. No randomised trials have been done to establish the best treatment for the disease. We assessed the safety and efficacy of siltuximab-a chimeric monoclonal antibody against interleukin 6-in HIV-negative patients with multicentric Castleman's disease.
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              A phase 2 multicentre study of siltuximab, an anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

              Interleukin-6 (IL6) plays a central role in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and confers resistance to corticosteroid-induced apoptosis. We therefore evaluated the efficacy and safety of siltuximab, an anti-IL6 monoclonal antibody, alone and in combination with dexamethasone, for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had ≥ 2 prior lines of therapy, one of which had to be bortezomib-based. Fourteen initial patients received siltuximab alone, 10 of whom had dexamethasone added for suboptimal response; 39 subsequent patients were treated with concurrent siltuximab and dexamethasone. Patients received a median of four prior lines of therapy, 83% were relapsed and refractory, and 70% refractory to their last dexamethasone-containing regimen. Suppression of serum C-reactive protein levels, a surrogate marker of IL6 inhibition, was demonstrated. There were no responses to siltuximab but combination therapy yielded a partial (17%) + minimal (6%) response rate of 23%, with responses seen in dexamethasone-refractory disease. The median time to progression, progression-free survival and overall survival for combination therapy was 4.4, 3.7 and 20.4 months respectively. Haematological toxicity was common but manageable. Infections occurred in 57% of combination-treated patients, including ≥ grade 3 infections in 18%. Further study of siltuximab in modern corticosteroid-containing myeloma regimens is warranted, with special attention to infection-related toxicity. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                02 July 2015
                : 9
                : 3455-3458
                Affiliations
                Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Baoan Chen, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Dingjiaqiao 87, Gulou District, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 25 8327 2006, Fax +86 25 8327 2011, Email cba8888@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                dddt-9-3455
                10.2147/DDDT.S86438
                4494175
                © 2015 Chen and Chen. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                clinical trials, castleman’s disease, interleukin-6

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