12
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Massive hemorrhage management–a best evidence topic report

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

      Dove Medical Press

      coagulopathy, fibrinogen, transfusion, viscoelastic assay

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Introduction

          Massive hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Better control of bleeding could improve survival rates by 10%–20%. Transfusion intervention concepts have been formulated in order to minimize acute traumatic coagulopathy. These interventions still have not been standardized and vary among medical centers.

          Materials and Methods

          Based on a literature search using free term keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) index, we analyzed published articles addressing massive hemorrhage, component therapy, fresh whole blood, and fibrinogen from the year 2000 onward, in journals with impact factor >1.000, in Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The evidence was grouped into topics including laboratory testing and transfusion interventions/viscoelastic assays vs standard laboratory tests, the effect of component therapy on patient outcome, the effect of warm fresh whole blood on patient outcome, and the effects of fibrinogen in severe bleeding. The obtained information was compared, evaluated, confronted, and was focused on to present an adequate and individual-based massive hemorrhage management approach.

          Results

          Viscoelastic whole-blood assays are superior to standard coagulation blood tests for the identification of coagulopathy and for guiding decisions on appropriate therapy in patients with severe bleeding. Replacement of plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and fibrinogen in a ratio of 1:1:1:1 has appeared to be the best substitution for lost whole blood. There is no evidence that cryoprecipitate improves the outcome of patients with severe hemorrhage. Current literature promotes the transfusion of warm fresh whole blood, which seems to be superior to the component therapy in certain clinical situations. Some authors recommend that fibrinogen and other coagulation factors be administered according to the viscoelastic attributes of the blood clot.

          Conclusion

          This best-evidence topic report brings comprehensive information about massive hemorrhage management.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 40

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The ratio of blood products transfused affects mortality in patients receiving massive transfusions at a combat support hospital.

          Patients with severe traumatic injuries often present with coagulopathy and require massive transfusion. The risk of death from hemorrhagic shock increases in this population. To treat the coagulopathy of trauma, some have suggested early, aggressive correction using a 1:1 ratio of plasma to red blood cell (RBC) units. We performed a retrospective chart review of 246 patients at a US Army combat support hospital, each of who received a massive transfusion (>/=10 units of RBCs in 24 hours). Three groups of patients were constructed according to the plasma to RBC ratio transfused during massive transfusion. Mortality rates and the cause of death were compared among groups. For the low ratio group the plasma to RBC median ratio was 1:8 (interquartile range, 0:12-1:5), for the medium ratio group, 1:2.5 (interquartile range, 1:3.0-1:2.3), and for the high ratio group, 1:1.4 (interquartile range, 1:1.7-1:1.2) (p < 0.001). Median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 18 for all groups (interquartile range, 14-25). For low, medium, and high plasma to RBC ratios, overall mortality rates were 65%, 34%, and 19%, (p < 0.001); and hemorrhage mortality rates were 92.5%, 78%, and 37%, respectively, (p < 0.001). Upon logistic regression, plasma to RBC ratio was independently associated with survival (odds ratio 8.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-35.2). In patients with combat-related trauma requiring massive transfusion, a high 1:1.4 plasma to RBC ratio is independently associated with improved survival to hospital discharge, primarily by decreasing death from hemorrhage. For practical purposes, massive transfusion protocols should utilize a 1:1 ratio of plasma to RBCs for all patients who are hypocoagulable with traumatic injuries.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Increased plasma and platelet to red blood cell ratios improves outcome in 466 massively transfused civilian trauma patients.

            To determine the effect of blood component ratios in massive transfusion (MT), we hypothesized that increased use of plasma and platelet to red blood cell (RBC) ratios would result in decreased early hemorrhagic death and this benefit would be sustained over the ensuing hospitalization. Civilian guidelines for massive transfusion (MT > or =10 units of RBC in 24 hours) have typically recommend a 1:3 ratio of plasma:RBC, whereas optimal platelet:RBC ratios are unknown. Conversely, military data shows that a plasma:RBC ratio approaching 1:1 improves long term outcomes in MT combat casualties. There is little consensus on optimal platelet transfusions in either civilian or military practice. At present, the optimal combinations of plasma, platelet, and RBCs for MT in civilian patients is unclear. Records of 467 MT trauma patients transported from the scene to 16 level 1 trauma centers between July 2005 and June 2006 were reviewed. One patient who died within 30 minutes of admission was excluded. Based on high and low plasma and platelet to RBC ratios, 4 groups were analyzed. Among 466 MT patients, survival varied by center from 41% to 74%. Mean injury severity score varied by center from 22 to 40; the average of the center means was 33. The plasma:RBC ratio ranged from 0 to 2.89 (mean +/- SD: 0.56 +/- 0.35) and the platelets:RBC ratio ranged from 0 to 2.5 (0.55 +/- 0.50). Plasma and platelet to RBC ratios and injury severity score were predictors of death at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days in multivariate logistic models. Thirty-day survival was increased in patients with high plasma:RBC ratio (> or =1:2) relative to those with low plasma:RBC ratio ( or =1:2) relative to those with low platelet:RBC ratio (<1:2) (low: 40.1% vs. high: 59.9%, P < 0.01). The combination of high plasma and high platelet to RBC ratios were associated with decreased truncal hemorrhage, increased 6-hour, 24-hour, and 30-day survival, and increased intensive care unit, ventilator, and hospital-free days (P < 0.05), with no change in multiple organ failure deaths. Statistical modeling indicated that a clinical guideline with mean plasma:RBC ratio equal to 1:1 would encompass 98% of patients within the optimal 1:2 ratio. Current transfusion practices and survival rates of MT patients vary widely among trauma centers. Conventional MT guidelines may underestimate the optimal plasma and platelet to RBC ratios. Survival in civilian MT patients is associated with increased plasma and platelet ratios. Massive transfusion practice guidelines should aim for a 1:1:1 ratio of plasma:platelets:RBCs.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Causes of death in U.S. Special Operations Forces in the global war on terrorism: 2001-2004.

              Effective combat trauma management strategies depend upon an understanding of the epidemiology of death on the battlefield. A panel of military medical experts reviewed photographs and autopsy and treatment records for all Special Operations Forces (SOF) who died between October 2001 and November 2004 (n = 82). Fatal wounds were classified as nonsurvivable or potentially survivable. Training and equipment available at the time of injury were taken into consideration. A structured analysis was conducted to identify equipment, training, or research requirements for improved future outcomes. Five (6%) of 82 casualties had died in an aircraft crash, and their bodies were lost at sea; autopsies had been performed on all other 77 soldiers. Nineteen deaths, including the deaths at sea were noncombat; all others were combat related. Deaths were caused by explosions (43%), gunshot wounds (28%), aircraft accidents (23%), and blunt trauma (6%). Seventy of 82 deaths (85%) were classified as nonsurvivable; 12 deaths (15%) were classified as potentially survivable. Of those with potentially survivable injuries, 16 causes of death were identified: 8 (50%) truncal hemorrhage, 3 (19%) compressible hemorrhage, 2 (13%) hemorrhage amenable to tourniquet, and 1 (6%) each from tension pneumothorax, airway obstruction, and sepsis. The population with nonsurvivable injuries was more severely injured than the population with potentially survivable injuries. Structured analysis identified improved methods of truncal hemorrhage control as a principal research requirement. The majority of deaths on the modern battlefield are nonsurvivable. Improved methods of intravenous or intracavitary, noncompressible hemostasis combined with rapid evacuation to surgery may increase survival.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                27 July 2015
                : 11
                : 1107-1111
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine Charles University, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tomas Vymazal, Department of Anaesthesiology and ICM, Motol University Hospital, V Uvalu 84, 150 06 Prague 5, Czech Republic, Tel +420 22 443 5400, Fax +420 22 443 5420, Email tomas.vymazal@ 123456fnmotol.cz
                Article
                tcrm-11-1107
                10.2147/TCRM.S88878
                4524472
                © 2015 Vymazal. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                viscoelastic assay, transfusion, fibrinogen, coagulopathy

                Comments

                Comment on this article