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      Livestock grazing is associated with seasonal reduction in pollinator biodiversity and functional dispersion but cheatgrass invasion is not: Variation in bee assemblages in a multi-use shortgrass prairie

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          Abstract

          Livestock grazing and non-native plant species affect rangeland habitats globally. These factors may have important effects on ecosystem services including pollination, yet, interactions between pollinators, grazing, and invasive plants are poorly understood. To address this, we tested the hypothesis that cattle grazing and site colonization by cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum) impact bee foraging and nesting habitats, and the biodiversity of wild bee communities, in a shortgrass prairie system. Bee nesting habitats (litter and wood cover) were marginally improved in non-grazed sites with low cheatgrass cover, though foraging habitat (floral cover and richness, bare soil) did not differ among cattle-grazed sites or non-grazed sites with low or high cheatgrass cover. However, floral cover was a good predictor of bee abundance and functional dispersion. Mean bee abundance, richness, diversity and functional diversity were significantly lower in cattle-grazed habitats than in non-grazed habitats. Differences in bee diversity among habitats were pronounced early in the growing season (May) but by late-season (August) these differences eroded as Melissodes spp. and Bombus spp. became more abundant at study sites. Fourth-corner analysis revealed that sites with high floral cover tended to support large, social, polylectic bees; sites with high grass cover tended to support oligolectic solitary bees. Both cattle-grazed sites and sites with high cheatgrass cover were associated with lower abundances of above-ground nesting bees but higher abundance of below-ground nesters than non-grazed sites with low cheatgrass cover. We conclude that high cheatgrass cover is not associated with reduced bee biodiversity or abundance, but cattle grazing was negatively associated with bee abundances and altered species composition. Although floral cover is an important predictor of bee assemblages, this was not impacted by cattle grazing and our study suggests that cattle likely impact bee communities through effects other than those mediated by forbs, including soil disturbance or nest destruction. Efforts aimed at pollinator conservation in prairie habitats should focus on managing cattle impacts early in the growing season to benefit sensitive bee species.

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          Most cited references 55

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

          For the past twenty five years the NIH family of imaging software, NIH Image and ImageJ have been pioneers as open tools for scientific image analysis. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            A Generalized Model of the Effects of Grazing by Large Herbivores on Grassland Community Structure

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              Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers.

              Pollinators are a key component of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is clear evidence of recent declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in the plants that rely upon them. Here we describe the nature and extent of reported declines, and review the potential drivers of pollinator loss, including habitat loss and fragmentation, agrochemicals, pathogens, alien species, climate change and the interactions between them. Pollinator declines can result in loss of pollination services which have important negative ecological and economic impacts that could significantly affect the maintenance of wild plant diversity, wider ecosystem stability, crop production, food security and human welfare. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                17 December 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship, Warner College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
                [2 ] Agricultural Biology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
                Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, BRAZIL
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-23236
                10.1371/journal.pone.0237484
                7746148
                33332351
                © 2020 Thapa-Magar et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 18
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000199, U.S. Department of Agriculture;
                Award ID: USDA NIFA COL 00767
                Award Recipient :
                Funding was provided by McIntire-Stennis appropriations (USDA NIFA COL 00767) to TSD.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Entomology
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Animal Management
                Livestock
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Grazing
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Grazing
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Behavior
                Grazing
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Grasses
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Foraging
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Foraging
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Behavior
                Foraging
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Entomology
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Habitats
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Habitats
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Custom metadata
                Data for bee abundances have been uploaded to the Dryad Digital Repository (doi: 10.5061/dryad.cjsxksn4w).

                Uncategorized

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