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      Genomic and epigenomic landscapes of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

      The New England journal of medicine

      Adult, CpG Islands, DNA Methylation, Epigenomics, Female, Gene Expression, Gene Fusion, Genome, Human, Humans, Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, classification, genetics, Male, MicroRNAs, Middle Aged, Mutation, Sequence Analysis, DNA, methods

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          Abstract

          Many mutations that contribute to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are undefined. The relationships between patterns of mutations and epigenetic phenotypes are not yet clear. We analyzed the genomes of 200 clinically annotated adult cases of de novo AML, using either whole-genome sequencing (50 cases) or whole-exome sequencing (150 cases), along with RNA and microRNA sequencing and DNA-methylation analysis. AML genomes have fewer mutations than most other adult cancers, with an average of only 13 mutations found in genes. Of these, an average of 5 are in genes that are recurrently mutated in AML. A total of 23 genes were significantly mutated, and another 237 were mutated in two or more samples. Nearly all samples had at least 1 nonsynonymous mutation in one of nine categories of genes that are almost certainly relevant for pathogenesis, including transcription-factor fusions (18% of cases), the gene encoding nucleophosmin (NPM1) (27%), tumor-suppressor genes (16%), DNA-methylation-related genes (44%), signaling genes (59%), chromatin-modifying genes (30%), myeloid transcription-factor genes (22%), cohesin-complex genes (13%), and spliceosome-complex genes (14%). Patterns of cooperation and mutual exclusivity suggested strong biologic relationships among several of the genes and categories. We identified at least one potential driver mutation in nearly all AML samples and found that a complex interplay of genetic events contributes to AML pathogenesis in individual patients. The databases from this study are widely available to serve as a foundation for further investigations of AML pathogenesis, classification, and risk stratification. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

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          Most cited references 31

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          Prognostic relevance of integrated genetic profiling in acute myeloid leukemia.

          Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to presentation and clinical outcome. The prognostic value of recently identified somatic mutations has not been systematically evaluated in a phase 3 trial of treatment for AML. We performed a mutational analysis of 18 genes in 398 patients younger than 60 years of age who had AML and who were randomly assigned to receive induction therapy with high-dose or standard-dose daunorubicin. We validated our prognostic findings in an independent set of 104 patients. We identified at least one somatic alteration in 97.3% of the patients. We found that internal tandem duplication in FLT3 (FLT3-ITD), partial tandem duplication in MLL (MLL-PTD), and mutations in ASXL1 and PHF6 were associated with reduced overall survival (P=0.001 for FLT3-ITD, P=0.009 for MLL-PTD, P=0.05 for ASXL1, and P=0.006 for PHF6); CEBPA and IDH2 mutations were associated with improved overall survival (P=0.05 for CEBPA and P=0.01 for IDH2). The favorable effect of NPM1 mutations was restricted to patients with co-occurring NPM1 and IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. We identified genetic predictors of outcome that improved risk stratification among patients with AML, independently of age, white-cell count, induction dose, and post-remission therapy, and validated the significance of these predictors in an independent cohort. High-dose daunorubicin, as compared with standard-dose daunorubicin, improved the rate of survival among patients with DNMT3A or NPM1 mutations or MLL translocations (P=0.001) but not among patients with wild-type DNMT3A, NPM1, and MLL (P=0.67). We found that DNMT3A and NPM1 mutations and MLL translocations predicted an improved outcome with high-dose induction chemotherapy in patients with AML. These findings suggest that mutational profiling could potentially be used for risk stratification and to inform prognostic and therapeutic decisions regarding patients with AML. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
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            De novo assembly and analysis of RNA-seq data.

            We describe Trans-ABySS, a de novo short-read transcriptome assembly and analysis pipeline that addresses variation in local read densities by assembling read substrings with varying stringencies and then merging the resulting contigs before analysis. Analyzing 7.4 gigabases of 50-base-pair paired-end Illumina reads from an adult mouse liver poly(A) RNA library, we identified known, new and alternative structures in expressed transcripts, and achieved high sensitivity and specificity relative to reference-based assembly methods.
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              Prognostically useful gene-expression profiles in acute myeloid leukemia.

              In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) a combination of methods must be used to classify the disease, make therapeutic decisions, and determine the prognosis. However, this combined approach provides correct therapeutic and prognostic information in only 50 percent of cases. We determined the gene-expression profiles in samples of peripheral blood or bone marrow from 285 patients with AML using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips containing approximately 13,000 unique genes or expression-signature tags. Data analyses were carried out with Omniviz, significance analysis of microarrays, and prediction analysis of microarrays software. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of cases of AML with specific molecular signatures. Unsupervised cluster analyses identified 16 groups of patients with AML on the basis of molecular signatures. We identified the genes that defined these clusters and determined the minimal numbers of genes needed to identify prognostically important clusters with a high degree of accuracy. The clustering was driven by the presence of chromosomal lesions (e.g., t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16)), particular genetic mutations (CEBPA), and abnormal oncogene expression (EVI1). We identified several novel clusters, some consisting of specimens with normal karyotypes. A unique cluster with a distinctive gene-expression signature included cases of AML with a poor treatment outcome. Gene-expression profiling allows a comprehensive classification of AML that includes previously identified genetically defined subgroups and a novel cluster with an adverse prognosis. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                23634996
                3767041
                10.1056/NEJMoa1301689

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