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      Patellofemoral Pain: Proximal, Distal, and Local Factors—2nd International Research Retreat, August 31–September 2, 2011, Ghent, Belgium

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          Abstract

          Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common lower extremity conditions seen in orthopaedic practice. The mission of the second International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat was to bring together scientists and clinicians from around the world who are conducting research aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to the development and, consequently, the treatment of PFP. The format of the 2.5-day retreat included 2 keynote presentations, interspersed with 6 podium and 4 poster sessions. An important element of the retreat was the development of consensus statements that summarized the state of the research in each of the 4 presentation categories. In this supplement, you will find the consensus documents from the meeting, as well as the keynote addresses, schedule, and platform and poster presentation abstracts.

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          Most cited references 220

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          Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study.

          Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. Prescreened female athletes with subsequent anterior cruciate ligament injury will demonstrate decreased neuromuscular control and increased valgus joint loading, predicting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. There were 205 female athletes in the high-risk sports of soccer, basketball, and volleyball prospectively measured for neuromuscular control using 3-dimensional kinematics (joint angles) and joint loads using kinetics (joint moments) during a jump-landing task. Analysis of variance as well as linear and logistic regression were used to isolate predictors of risk in athletes who subsequently ruptured the anterior cruciate ligament. Nine athletes had a confirmed anterior cruciate ligament rupture; these 9 had significantly different knee posture and loading compared to the 196 who did not have anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Knee abduction angle (P<.05) at landing was 8 degrees greater in anterior cruciate ligament-injured than in uninjured athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes had a 2.5 times greater knee abduction moment (P<.001) and 20% higher ground reaction force (P<.05), whereas stance time was 16% shorter; hence, increased motion, force, and moments occurred more quickly. Knee abduction moment predicted anterior cruciate ligament injury status with 73% specificity and 78% sensitivity; dynamic valgus measures showed a predictive r2 of 0.88. Knee motion and knee loading during a landing task are predictors of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes. Female athletes with increased dynamic valgus and high abduction loads are at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The methods developed may be used to monitor neuromuscular control of the knee joint and may help develop simpler measures of neuromuscular control that can be used to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted interventions.
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            A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries.

             J E Taunton (2002)
            To provide an extensive and up to date database for specific running related injuries, across the sexes, as seen at a primary care sports medicine facility, and to assess the relative risk for individual injuries based on investigation of selected risk factors. Patient data were recorded by doctors at the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre over a two year period. They included assessment of anthropometric, training, and biomechanical information. A model was constructed (with odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals) of possible contributing factors using a dependent variable of runners with a specific injury and comparing them with a control group of runners who experienced a different injury. Variables included in the model were: height, weight, body mass index, age, activity history, weekly activity, history of injury, and calibre of runner. Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years was positively associated with injury in both sexes for tibial stress syndrome; and women with a body mass index less than 21 kg/m(2) were at a significantly higher risk for tibial stress fractures and spinal injuries. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome. Although various risk factors were shown to be positively associated with a risk for, or protection from, specific injuries, future research should include a non-injured control group and a more precise measure of weekly running distance and running experience to validate these results.
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              The influence of abnormal hip mechanics on knee injury: a biomechanical perspective.

              During the last decade, there has been a growing body of literature suggesting that proximal factors may play a contributory role with respect to knee injuries. A review of the biomechanical and clinical studies in this area indicated that impaired muscular control of the hip, pelvis, and trunk can affect tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint kinematics and kinetics in multiple planes. In particular, there is evidence that motion impairments at the hip may underlie injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament tears, iliotibial band syndrome, and patellofemoral joint pain. In addition, the literature suggests that females may be more disposed to proximal influences than males. Based on the evidence presented as part of this clinical commentary, it can be argued that interventions which address proximal impairments may be beneficial for patients who present with various knee conditions. More specifically, a biomechanical argument can be made for the incorporation of pelvis and trunk stability, as well as dynamic hip joint control, into the design of knee rehabilitation programs. Aetiology/therapy, level 5.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
                J Orthop Sports Phys Ther
                Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT)
                0190-6011
                1938-1344
                June 2012
                June 2012
                : 42
                : 6
                : A1-A54
                Article
                10.2519/jospt.2012.0301
                22660660
                © 2012
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