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      Mass Spectrometry Methodology in Lipid Analysis

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          Abstract

          Lipidomics is an emerging field, where the structures, functions and dynamic changes of lipids in cells, tissues or body fluids are investigated. Due to the vital roles of lipids in human physiological and pathological processes, lipidomics is attracting more and more attentions. However, because of the diversity and complexity of lipids, lipid analysis is still full of challenges. The recent development of methods for lipid extraction and analysis and the combination with bioinformatics technology greatly push forward the study of lipidomics. Among them, mass spectrometry (MS) is the most important technology for lipid analysis. In this review, the methodology based on MS for lipid analysis was introduced. It is believed that along with the rapid development of MS and its further applications to lipid analysis, more functional lipids will be identified as biomarkers and therapeutic targets and for the study of the mechanisms of disease.

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          Most cited references97

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          Lipid extraction by methyl-tert-butyl ether for high-throughput lipidomics.

          Accurate profiling of lipidomes relies upon the quantitative and unbiased recovery of lipid species from analyzed cells, fluids, or tissues and is usually achieved by two-phase extraction with chloroform. We demonstrated that methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction allows faster and cleaner lipid recovery and is well suited for automated shotgun profiling. Because of MTBE's low density, lipid-containing organic phase forms the upper layer during phase separation, which simplifies its collection and minimizes dripping losses. Nonextractable matrix forms a dense pellet at the bottom of the extraction tube and is easily removed by centrifugation. Rigorous testing demonstrated that the MTBE protocol delivers similar or better recoveries of species of most all major lipid classes compared with the "gold-standard" Folch or Bligh and Dyer recipes.
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            Lipidomics: coming to grips with lipid diversity.

            Although lipids are biomolecules with seemingly simple chemical structures, the molecular composition of the cellular lipidome is complex and, currently, poorly understood. The exact mechanisms of how compositional complexity affects cell homeostasis and its regulation also remain unclear. This emerging field is developing sensitive mass spectrometry technologies for the quantitative characterization of the lipidome. Here, we argue that lipidomics will become an essential tool kit in cell and developmental biology, molecular medicine and nutrition.
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              Shotgun lipidomics: electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis and quantitation of cellular lipidomes directly from crude extracts of biological samples.

              Lipidomics, after genomics and proteomics, is a newly and rapidly expanding research field that studies cellular lipidomes and the organizational hierarchy of lipid and protein constituents mediating life processes. Lipidomics is greatly facilitated by recent advances in, and novel applications of, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). In this review, we will focus on the advances in ESI/MS, which have facilitated the development of shotgun lipidomics and the utility of intrasource separation as an enabling strategy for utilization of 2D mass spectrometry in shotgun lipidomics of biological samples. The principles and experimental details of the intrasource separation approach will be extensively discussed. Other ESI/MS approaches towards the quantitative analyses of global cellular lipidomes directly from crude lipid extracts of biological samples will also be reviewed and compared. Multiple examples of lipidomic analyses from crude lipid extracts employing these approaches will be given to show the power of ESI/MS techniques in lipidomics. Currently, modern society is plagued by the sequelae of lipid-related diseases. It is our hope that the integration of these advances in multiple disciplines will catalyze the development of lipidomics, and such development will lead to improvements in diagnostics and therapeutics, which will ultimately result in the extended longevity and an improved quality of life for humankind.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                11 June 2014
                June 2014
                : 15
                : 6
                : 10492-10507
                Affiliations
                Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Mass Spectrum Center, Beijing 100190, China; E-Mails: linligdc@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (L.L.); hjuan@ 123456iccas.ac.an (J.H.); wang_82713@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (Z.W.); lja@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (J.L.); weijinchao@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (J.W.); mscbj@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (S.X.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: zhenwenzhao@ 123456iccas.ac.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-6256-1239.
                Article
                ijms-15-10492
                10.3390/ijms150610492
                4100164
                24921707
                3768c5f5-afc5-4150-b905-0efa6fd8b94f
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                lipidomics,mass spectrometry,lipids extraction,bioinformatics technology
                Molecular biology
                lipidomics, mass spectrometry, lipids extraction, bioinformatics technology

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