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      Toward a decade of ocean science for sustainable development through acoustic animal tracking


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          The ocean is a key component of the Earth's dynamics, providing a great variety of ecosystem services to humans. Yet, human activities are globally changing its structure and major components, including marine biodiversity. In this context, the United Nations has proclaimed a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development to tackle the scientific challenges necessary for a sustainable use of the ocean by means of the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG14). Here, we review how Acoustic animal Tracking, a widely distributed methodology of tracking marine biodiversity with electronic devices, can provide a roadmap for implementing the major Actions to achieve the SDG14. We show that acoustic tracking can be used to reduce and monitor the effects of marine pollution including noise, light, and plastic pollution. Acoustic tracking can be effectively used to monitor the responses of marine biodiversity to human‐made infrastructures and habitat restoration, as well as to determine the effects of hypoxia, ocean warming, and acidification. Acoustic tracking has been historically used to inform fisheries management, the design of marine protected areas, and the detection of essential habitats, rendering this technique particularly attractive to achieve the sustainable fishing and spatial protection target goals of the SDG14. Finally, acoustic tracking can contribute to end illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing by providing tools to monitor marine biodiversity against poachers and promote the development of Small Islands Developing States and developing countries. To fully benefit from acoustic tracking supporting the SDG14 Targets, trans‐boundary collaborative efforts through tracking networks are required to promote ocean information sharing and ocean literacy. We therefore propose acoustic tracking and tracking networks as relevant contributors to tackle the scientific challenges that are necessary for a sustainable use of the ocean promoted by the United Nations.


          The United Nations has proclaimed a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. Here, we review how Acoustic animal Tracking (AT), a widely distributed methodology of tracking marine biodiversity with electronic devices, can provide a roadmap for implementing the major Actions to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of life below water. This review provides a list of specific examples in how AT can help reaching most Targets by providing cutting‐edge scientific data.

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          Most cited references274

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          Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

          Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.
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            Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.

            One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly understood.
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              Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming

              Ocean acidification represents a threat to marine species worldwide, and forecasting the ecological impacts of acidification is a high priority for science, management, and policy. As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms' responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification. The results reveal decreased survival, calcification, growth, development and abundance in response to acidification when the broad range of marine organisms is pooled together. However, the magnitude of these responses varies among taxonomic groups, suggesting there is some predictable trait-based variation in sensitivity, despite the investigation of approximately 100 new species in recent research. The results also reveal an enhanced sensitivity of mollusk larvae, but suggest that an enhanced sensitivity of early life history stages is not universal across all taxonomic groups. In addition, the variability in species' responses is enhanced when they are exposed to acidification in multi-species assemblages, suggesting that it is important to consider indirect effects and exercise caution when forecasting abundance patterns from single-species laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the results suggest that other factors, such as nutritional status or source population, could cause substantial variation in organisms' responses. Last, the results highlight a trend towards enhanced sensitivity to acidification when taxa are concurrently exposed to elevated seawater temperature.

                Author and article information

                Glob Chang Biol
                Glob Chang Biol
                Global Change Biology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                05 August 2022
                October 2022
                : 28
                : 19 ( doiID: 10.1111/gcb.v28.19 )
                : 5630-5653
                [ 1 ] Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados, IMEDEA (CSIC‐UIB) Esporles Spain
                [ 2 ] Section for Freshwater Fisheries and Ecology National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark Silkeborg Denmark
                [ 3 ] Center of Marine Sciences Universidade do Algarve (CCMAR) Faro Portugal
                [ 4 ] Institute of Marine Research (IMAR/Okeanos), University of the Azores Horta Portugal
                [ 5 ] Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM), CSIC Vigo Spain
                [ 6 ] Hull International Fisheries Institute University of Hull Hull UK
                [ 7 ] National Center Spanish Institute of Oceanography, CSIC Balearic Islands CO Spain
                [ 8 ] NORCE Norwegian Research Center AS Bergen Norway
                [ 9 ] Norwegian Institute for Nature Research Trondheim Norway
                [ 10 ] Loughs Agency Derry/Londonderry UK
                [ 11 ] Ege University Faculty of Fisheries Izmir Turkey
                [ 12 ] Flanders Marine Institute Ostend Belgium
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Josep Alós, Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados, IMEDEA (CSIC‐UIB), Esporles, Spain.

                Email: alos@ 123456imedea.uib-csic.es

                GCB16343 GCB-22-0427.R1
                © 2022 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Pages: 24, Words: 21349
                Funded by: Agencia Estatal Investigación, España
                Award ID: PID2019‐104940GA‐I00
                Funded by: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas , doi 10.13039/501100003339;
                Award ID: PIE202030E002
                Funded by: Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia , doi 10.13039/501100001871;
                Award ID: DL57/2016/CP1361/CT0036
                Award ID: BECORV PTDC/BIABMA/30278
                Award ID: UID/Multi/04326/2020
                Funded by: European Regional Development Fund: Interreg, MarGen II Project
                Award ID: 175806
                Funded by: H2020 Marie Sklodowska‐Curie Actions , doi 10.13039/100010665;
                Award ID: 793627
                Award ID: 891404
                Funded by: Juan de la Cierva, Ministerio Ciencia e Innovación, España
                Award ID: IJC2019‐038852‐I
                Funded by: Norwegian Research Council
                Award ID: LOST
                Funded by: European Cooperation in Science and Technology
                Award ID: CA18102 COST
                Custom metadata
                October 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.2.0 mode:remove_FC converted:07.10.2022

                acoustic tracking,climate change,fisheries,marine pollution,movement,networks,ocean monitoring,sustainable development,telemetry


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