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      A comparative pharmacokinetic and tolerability analysis of the novel orotic acid salt form of tenofovir disoproxil and the fumaric acid salt form in healthy subjects

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          Abstract

          A novel orotic acid salt form of tenofovir disoproxil (DA-2802) was developed and is expected to replace the fumaric acid salt form. The pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics and tolerability profiles of DA-2802 were compared to those of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, Viread ®) in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose study was conducted in 36 healthy subjects using a two-treatment, two-period, and two-sequence crossover design. Subjects received a single oral dose of 319 mg DA-2802 or 300 mg TDF, during each period, with a 7-day washout. Serial blood samples were collected pre-dosing and up to 72 hours post-dosing in each period, for determination of serum tenofovir concentration, which was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A non-compartmental method was used to obtain PK parameters of tenofovir. For comparison between the two tenofovir disoproxil salts, the 90% confidence intervals (90% CIs) of geometric mean ratios of DA-2802 to TDF for the maximum concentration (C max) and the area under the concentration–time curve to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0–t) were determined. The tolerability profiles of tenofovir were assessed by evaluation of adverse events and vital signs, physical examination, ECG, and clinical laboratory tests. The serum tenofovir concentration–time profiles of DA-2802 or TDF were comparable in 32 subjects who completed the study. In both profiles, a two-compartmental elimination with first-order elimination kinetics in the terminal phase was reported in a few subjects, showing a secondary peak in the initial phase of elimination. The geometric mean ratio (90% CI) of DA-2802 to TDF was 0.898 (0.815–0.990) for C max and 0.904 (0.836–0.978) for AUC 0–t. There were no clinically significant findings in the tolerability assessments. DA-2802 showed comparable PK characteristics and tolerability profiles to TDF.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Enterohepatic bile salt transporters in normal physiology and liver disease.

          The vectorial transport of bile salts from blood into bile is essential for the generation of bile flow, solubilization of cholesterol in bile, and emulsification of lipids in the intestine. Major transport proteins involved in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts include the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11), the apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT, SLC10A2) in cholangiocytes and enterocytes, the sodium-dependent hepatocyte bile salt uptake system NTCP (SLC10A1), the organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP-C (SLC21A6), OATP8 (SLC21A8) and OATP-A (SLC21A3), and the multidrug resistance protein MRP3 (ABCC3). Synthesis and transport of bile salts are intricately linked processes that undergo extensive feedback and feed-forward regulation by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. A key regulator of hepatocellular bile salt homeostasis is the bile acid receptor/farnesoid X receptor FXR, which activates transcription of the BSEP and OATP8 genes and of the small heterodimer partner 1 (SHP). SHP is a transcriptional repressor that mediates bile acid-induced repression of the bile salt uptake systems rat Ntcp and human OATP-C. A nuclear receptor that activates rodent Oatp2 (Slc21a5) and human MRP2 (ABCC2) is the pregnane X receptor/steroid X receptor PXR/SXR. Intracellular trafficking and membrane insertion of bile salt transporters is regulated by lipid, protein, and extracellular signal-related kinases in response to physiologic stimuli such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate or taurocholate. Finally, dysfunction of individual bile salt transporters such as BSEP, on account of genetic mutations, steric inhibition, suppression of gene expression, or disturbed signaling, is an important cause of cholestatic liver disease.
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            Differential antiherpesvirus and antiretrovirus effects of the (S) and (R) enantiomers of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: potent and selective in vitro and in vivo antiretrovirus activities of (R)-9-(2-phosphonomethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine.

            The (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of acyclic purine nucleoside phosphonate analogs (i.e., 3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl [HPMP] derivatives, 3-fluoro-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl [FPMP] derivatives, and 2-phosphonomethoxypropyl [PMP] derivatives of adenine [A], 2-aminopurine, 2,6-diaminopurine [DAP], and guanine [G]) have been synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity. As a rule, the HPMP derivatives proved effective against DNA viruses but not RNA viruses or retroviruses. In particular, (S)-HPMPA, (S)-HPMPDAP, and (R)- and (S)-HPMPG were exquisitely inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 (50% effective concentrations, 0.63, 0.22, 0.10, and 0.66 microM, respectively). The FPMP and PMP derivatives showed marked inhibitory activities against retroviruses but not DNA viruses. The (S)-enantiomer of FPMPA and the (R)-enantiomer of PMPA were approximately 30- to 100-fold more effective against human immunodeficiency virus and Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MSV) than their enantiomeric counterparts. In contrast, both (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of the DAP and G derivatives proved equally effective against retroviruses, except for (R)-PMPDAP, which was 15- to 40-fold more inhibitory than (S)-PMPDAP. (R)-PMPDAP emerged as the most potent and selective inhibitor of MSV-induced transformation of murine C3H/3T3 cells and human immunodeficiency virus-induced cytopathicity in MT-4 and CEM cells (50% effective concentration, approximately 0.1 to 0.6 microM). When administered intraperitoneally at a single dose as low as 2 mg/kg, (R)-PMPDAP efficiently decreased MSV-induced tumor formation in newborn NMRI mice and significantly increased the survival time of MSV-infected mice. In addition, upon oral administration to MSV-infected mice, (R)-PMPDAP showed marked antiretroviral efficacy.
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              Guidance for industry. E6 good clinical practice: Consolidated guidance

              (1996)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                06 November 2017
                : 11
                : 3171-3177
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital
                [2 ]Dong-A ST Co., Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: SeungHwan Lee, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 2 2072 3520, Fax +82 2 742 9252, Email leejh413@ 123456snu.ac.kr
                Article
                dddt-11-3171
                10.2147/DDDT.S149125
                5683794
                © 2017 Kim et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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