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      Incremental Value of an Insertable Cardiac Monitor in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Low or Intermediate Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

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          Abstract

          Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of actionable arrhythmic events between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who are monitored with an insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) or Holter monitoring. Methods: We studied 50 patients (mean age 52 years, 72% men) with HCM at low or intermediate risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), of whom 25 patients received an ICM between November 2014 and February 2019. We retrospectively identified a control group of 25 patients who were matched on age, sex, and HCM Risk-SCD score category. The mean HCM Risk-SCD score was 3.41 ± 1.31 and 3.31 ± 1.43 for the ICM and Holter groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was an actionable event which was defined as an arrhythmic event resulting in a change in patient management. The secondary endpoint was the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Results: The cumulative actionable event rate at 30 months was higher in the ICM group (51 vs. 27%, log-rank p value <0.01). De novo atrial fibrillation requiring oral anticoagulation occurred only in the ICM group ( n = 3). Overall, 4 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators were implanted for primary prevention ( n = 2 in each group). The cumulative rate of VT episodes at 30 months was similar between groups (23% [ICM group] vs. 42% [Holter group], log-rank p value = 0.71). Furthermore, the characteristics of VT were similar between groups with regard to the number of beats and rate. Conclusions: In adults with HCM, an ICM will detect more arrhythmic events requiring an intervention than a conventional Holter strategy. In contrast, the diagnostic yield of detecting VT seems similar for both groups.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Subclinical atrial fibrillation and the risk of stroke.

          One quarter of strokes are of unknown cause, and subclinical atrial fibrillation may be a common etiologic factor. Pacemakers can detect subclinical episodes of rapid atrial rate, which correlate with electrocardiographically documented atrial fibrillation. We evaluated whether subclinical episodes of rapid atrial rate detected by implanted devices were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients who did not have other evidence of atrial fibrillation. We enrolled 2580 patients, 65 years of age or older, with hypertension and no history of atrial fibrillation, in whom a pacemaker or defibrillator had recently been implanted. We monitored the patients for 3 months to detect subclinical atrial tachyarrhythmias (episodes of atrial rate >190 beats per minute for more than 6 minutes) and followed them for a mean of 2.5 years for the primary outcome of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism. Patients with pacemakers were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive continuous atrial overdrive pacing. By 3 months, subclinical atrial tachyarrhythmias detected by implanted devices had occurred in 261 patients (10.1%). Subclinical atrial tachyarrhythmias were associated with an increased risk of clinical atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 5.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.78 to 8.17; P<0.001) and of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism (hazard ratio, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.28 to 4.85; P=0.007). Of 51 patients who had a primary outcome event, 11 had had subclinical atrial tachyarrhythmias detected by 3 months, and none had had clinical atrial fibrillation by 3 months. The population attributable risk of stroke or systemic embolism associated with subclinical atrial tachyarrhythmias was 13%. Subclinical atrial tachyarrhythmias remained predictive of the primary outcome after adjustment for predictors of stroke (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.28 to 4.89; P=0.008). Continuous atrial overdrive pacing did not prevent atrial fibrillation. Subclinical atrial tachyarrhythmias, without clinical atrial fibrillation, occurred frequently in patients with pacemakers and were associated with a significantly increased risk of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism. (Funded by St. Jude Medical; ASSERT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00256152.).
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            2018 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope

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              A novel clinical risk prediction model for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM risk-SCD).

              Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young adults. Current risk algorithms provide only a crude estimate of risk and fail to account for the different effect size of individual risk factors. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new SCD risk prediction model that provides individualized risk estimates. The prognostic model was derived from a retrospective, multi-centre longitudinal cohort study. The model was developed from the entire data set using the Cox proportional hazards model and internally validated using bootstrapping. The cohort consisted of 3675 consecutive patients from six centres. During a follow-up period of 24 313 patient-years (median 5.7 years), 198 patients (5%) died suddenly or had an appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shock. Of eight pre-specified predictors, age, maximal left ventricular wall thickness, left atrial diameter, left ventricular outflow tract gradient, family history of SCD, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, and unexplained syncope were associated with SCD/appropriate ICD shock at the 15% significance level. These predictors were included in the final model to estimate individual probabilities of SCD at 5 years. The calibration slope was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.08), C-index was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.72), and D-statistic was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.32). For every 16 ICDs implanted in patients with ≥4% 5-year SCD risk, potentially 1 patient will be saved from SCD at 5 years. A second model with the data set split into independent development and validation cohorts had very similar estimates of coefficients and performance when externally validated. This is the first validated SCD risk prediction model for patients with HCM and provides accurate individualized estimates for the probability of SCD using readily collected clinical parameters. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                March 2021
                21 January 2021
                : 146
                : 2
                : 207-212
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *Sing-Chien Yap, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, NL–3015 GD Rotterdam (The Netherlands), s.c.yap@erasmusmc.nl
                Article
                512656 Cardiology 2021;146:207–212
                10.1159/000512656
                33477163
                © 2021 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia: Research Article

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