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      Ultrafast lithium diffusion in bilayer graphene

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          Abstract

          Solid mixed conductors with significant ionic as well as electronic conduction play a pivotal role for mass transfer and storage as required in battery electrodes. Single-phase materials with simultaneously high electronic and ionic conductivity at room temperature are hard to come by and therefore multi-phase systems with separate ion and electron channels have been put forward instead. Here, we explore bilayer graphene as a true single phase mixed conductor and demonstrate ultrafast lithium diffusion exceeding diffusion in bulk graphite by an order of magnitude and even surpassing diffusion of sodium chloride in liquid water. To this end, an innovative electrochemical cell architecture has been developed where the redox-reaction forcing lithium intercalation is localized at a protrusion of the device only. Its remainder consists of pristine bilayer graphene unperturbed by an electrolyte. The geometry lends itself to the use of magnetotransport machinery known from mesoscopic low-dimensional physics. Time dependent Hall measurements across spatially displaced Hall probes deliver a direct view on the in-plane diffusion kinetics. The device layout with a perimeterial electrochemical cell is transferable to other 2D materials as well as thin films and may promote a paradigm shift on the use of electrolytes in on-chip experiments.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            Electrochemical measurement of transference numbers in polymer electrolytes

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              Superconductivity Series in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Ionic Gating

              Functionalities of two-dimensional (2D) crystals based on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have now stemmed from simple field effect transistors (FETs) to a variety of electronic and opto-valleytronic devices, and even to superconductivity. Among them, superconductivity is the least studied property in TMDs due to methodological difficulty accessing it in different TMD species. Here, we report the systematic study of superconductivity in MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 by ionic gating in different regimes. Electrostatic gating using ionic liquid was able to induce superconductivity in MoSe2 but not in MoTe2 because of inefficient electron accumulation limited by electronic band alignment. Alternative gating using KClO4/polyethylene glycol enabled a crossover from surface doping to bulk doping, which induced superconductivities in MoTe2 and WS2 electrochemically. These new varieties greatly enriched the TMD superconductor families and unveiled critical methodology to expand the capability of ionic gating to other materials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2017-01-09
                Article
                1701.02399

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                main text 18 pages including 5 figures; supplementary information 7 pages including 4 figures
                cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci physics.chem-ph

                Condensed matter, Physical chemistry, Nanophysics

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