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      Serial pathologic fractures of five long bones on four separate occasions in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, challenges of management in a developing country: a case report

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          Abstract

          Multiple pathologic fractures secondary to parathyroid adenoma is rarely recognized and reported in the tropics. Inadequate evaluation causes worsened disability and increased psychological stress. We present a 27-year-old Nigerian male student with recurrent unexplained pathological fractures of the long bones. Primary Hyperparathyroidism was later diagnosed and he benefited from a unilateral parathyroidectomy. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma is difficult to diagnose and needs a high index of suspicion. Surgery and good post-operative biochemical control of serum calcium produce satisfying outcomes.

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          Most cited references 19

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          One hundred consecutive minimally invasive parathyroid explorations.

          To review the outcomes of 100 consecutive minimally invasive parathyroid explorations. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has challenged the traditional approach of bilateral neck exploration for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have a single adenoma that when resected results in cure. It therefore appears logical to perform a directed approach to adenoma extirpation. MIP involves high-quality sestamibi images obtained with single photon emission computed tomography to localize enlarged parathyroid glands in three dimensions, limited exploration after surgeon-administered cervical block anesthesia, rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay to confirm the adequacy of resection, and discharge within 1 to 3 hours of surgery. MIP was offered to 100 selected consecutive patients during an 18-month period beginning in March 1998. Ninety-two cases were accomplished under cervical block anesthesia and 89 of these on an ambulatory basis. The cure rate was 100%, and there were no long-term complications. The mean hospital charge for MIP was less than 40% of that associated with traditional exploration. Outpatient MIP appears to be the procedure of choice for most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
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            Clinical manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy. A case-control study.

            There has been an National Institutes of Health consensus meeting concerning the management of patients with "asymptomatic" primary hyperparathyroidism, yet there is no clear definition of this condition. The authors, therefore, documented the clinical manifestations and frequencies of these manifestations in unselected patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and determined whether these clinical manifestations resolved after parathyroidectomy. The authors studied 152 unselected consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and 132 control patients with nontoxic thyroid disorders who were treated by parathyroidectomy or thyroidectomy, respectively, between January 1986 and June 1991. All patients received a questionnaire during their initial office visits and the same questionnaire again after their operations. Patients were also questioned about their perception of the success of the operation. Eighty percent of the parathyroid patients and 70.5% of the thyroid patients completed the questionnaires, and the mean follow-up time was 20 months. Only 7 (4.6%) patients with primary hyperparathyroidism had no symptoms, and 26 (17.1%) had no associated conditions despite 74.3% of these patients having serum calcium levels less than 12 mg/dL. Symptoms including fatigue, exhaustion, weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, nocturia, joint pain, bone pain, constipation, depression, anorexia, nausea, heartburn, and associated conditions, including nephrolithiasis, and hematuria occurred more often in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism than in the thyroid control patients (p < 0.05). After parathyroidectomy, only eight (5.3%) patients failed to have any improvement in symptoms or associated conditions. Fifty-seven percent of the parathyroid patients versus 30% of the thyroid patients felt better overall after the operation, strength subjectively improved in 29% of parathyroid patients versus 13% in thyroid patients; thirty-seven percent of the parathyroid patients versus 13% of the thyroid patients claimed they were less depressed. When examined thoroughly, few patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were asymptomatic or without associated conditions, and most patients experienced subjective improvement after successful parathyroidectomy.
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              Values of ultrasonography, sestamibi scintigraphy, and intraoperative measurement of 1-84 PTH for unilateral neck exploration of primary hyperparathyroidism.

              Unilateral neck exploration (UNE) is a controversial approach to the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), and most surgeons favor bilateral neck exploration. The aim of this study was to assess the value of ultrasonography, sestamibi scintigraphy, and intraoperative measurement of urinary cyclic AMP (UcAMP) or 1-84 PTH in 200 patients undergoing unilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia. Conditions for UNE were (1) a presumed solitary adenoma detected by ultrasonography, (2) no thyroid disease, and (3) no family history of PHP or multiple endocrine neoplasia. Patient's consent was obtained for conversion to bilateral exploration according to surgical and biologic findings. Sensitivity of ultrasonography was 92.5%. Sestamibi scintigraphy, performed in 70 patients, was less sensitive than ultrasonography (80%). Persistent PHP was accurately detected by intraoperative measurement of UcAMP or 1-84 PTH in all cases. At follow-up, 96.0% of the patients were cured either after unilateral neck exploration only (90.5%), or after conversion into bilateral exploration. Ultrasonography and intraoperative measurement of 1-84 PTH allow unilateral neck exploration with excellent results in a selected group of patients with PHP.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pan Afr Med J
                Pan Afr Med J
                PAMJ
                The Pan African Medical Journal
                The African Field Epidemiology Network
                1937-8688
                08 June 2013
                2013
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria
                [2 ]Division of Orthopedics Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria
                [3 ]Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria
                [4 ]Department of Anesthesia, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria
                Author notes
                [& ]Corresponding author: Samuel Adegboyega Olatoke, Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria
                Article
                PAMJ-15-45
                10.11604/pamj.2013.15.45.2501
                3786150
                © Samuel Adegboyega Olatoke et al.

                The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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