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      Kinetic and statistical criteria for the selection of conditions of extraction of volatile compounds of piquin pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) Translated title: Criterios cinéticos y estadísticos para la selección de las condiciones de extracción de compuestos volátiles en chile piquín (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum)

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          Abstract

          This study was aimed to analyze trie effect of temperature (40, 60, and 80 °C) and time (10, 40, and 80 min) or extraction of major volatile compounds (VC) from piquin peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) using HS-SPME. VC extraction was significantly affected (P<0.05) by temperature and time, which was described by a kinetic fractional conversion equation and the Arrhenius model. However, principal component analysis (PCA) performed on major VC determined a differential response of VC to extraction conditions. Two distinctive groups of compounds were identified using kinetic and statistical criteria: compounds associated (GR1) and poorly associated (GR2) with the aromatic profile of peppers. Extraction of GR1 compounds was favored at 40 oC and 80 min; whereas for GR2, extraction was favored at 80 °C and 80 min. The best extraction condition of VC associated with aroma of piquin pepper was determined (40 °C and 80 min) considering the individual effect of temperature that favored extraction of VC within GR1. The results showed that the use PCA can be a useful tool for a better selection of extraction conditions of the aromatic fraction of interest.

          Translated abstract

          El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de temperatura (40, 60 y 80 °C) y tiempo (10, 40 y 80 min) sobre la extracción de los componentes volatiles mayoritarios (CV) asociados al aroma del chile piquín (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) mediante HS-SPME. La extracción de CV fue afectada significativamente (P< 0.05) por la temperatura y el tiempo en un efecto descrito por un modelo cinético de conversión fraccional y el modelo de Arrhenius. Al aplicar análisis de componentes principales (ACP) a los CV se determinó una respuesta diferente a las condiciones de extracción. El uso de criterios cinéticos y estadísticos permitió identificar dos grupos de CV asociados (GR1) y pobremente asociados (GR2) al perfil aromático de los chiles. La mayor extracción de GR1 se obtuvo a 40 °C y 80 min; mientras que la extraccion de GR2 fue favorecida a mayor temperatura y tiempo. La condición de extracción seleccionada fue de 40 °C y 80 min que favorece la extracción de los CV asociados al aroma de los chiles. Los resultados indican que el ACP es una herramienta útil para la selección de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la fracción aromática de interés.

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              HS-SPME comparative analysis of genotypic diversity in the volatile fraction and aroma-contributing compounds of Capsicum fruits from the annuum-chinense-frutescens complex.

              Volatile constituents of ripe fruits of 16 Capsicum accessions from the annuum-chinense-frutescens complex, with different aroma impressions and geographical origins, were isolated by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-sniffing port-MS). More than 300 individual compounds could be detected in the studied genotypes; most of them could be identified by comparing mass spectra and retention times with authentic reference substances or literature data. Esters and terpenoids were the main groups, although other minor compounds, such as nitrogen and sulfur compounds, phenol derivatives, norcarotenoids, lipoxygenase derivatives, carbonyls, alcohols, and other hydrocarbons, were also identified. The sniffing test revealed that the diversity of aromas found among the studied cultivars is due to qualitative and quantitative differences of, at least, 23 odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs). C. chinense, and C. frutescens accessions, with fruity/exotic aromas, were characterized by a high contribution of several esters and ionones and a low or nil contribution of green/vegetable OCVs. Different combinations of fruity/exotic and green/vegetable OCVs would explain the range of aroma impressions found among C. annuum accessions. Implications of these findings for breeding and phylogeny studies in Capsicum are also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rmiq
                Revista mexicana de ingeniería química
                Rev. Mex. Ing. Quím
                UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería (México )
                1665-2738
                August 2015
                : 14
                : 2
                : 231-241
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey México
                [2 ] Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey México
                [3 ] Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey México
                Article
                S1665-27382015000200001

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Categories
                Chemistry, Applied
                Engineering, Chemical

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