We determined the plasma level of levobunolol in normal volunteers after a single topical instillation of 0.5 or 1% levobunolol in both eyes, and after twice-daily instillations for 1 week. Levobunolol levels were detected within 1 h following acute instillation. During the study, mean plasma levels ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/ml for the 0.5% group and 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ml for the 1% group. The highest individual plasma level was 1.2 ng/ml, which occurred in 1 patient receiving 1% levobunolol. After 1 week of twice-daily instillation mean plasma levels were similar to those observed after acute instillation. Minimal cardiovascular changes were observed in the 0.5% group while decreases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure were observed in the 1% treatment group.