Classical biological control, i.e. the introduction and release of exotic insects, mites, or pathogens to give permanent control, is the predominant method in weed biocontrol. Inundative releases of predators and integrated pest management are less widely used. The United States, Australia, South Africa, Canada, and New Zealand use biocontrol the most. Weeds in natural ecosystems are increasingly becoming targets for biocontrol. Discussion continues on agent selection, but host-specificity testing is well developed and reliable. Post-release evaluation of impact is increasing, both on the target weed and on non-target plants. Control of aquatic weeds has been a notable success. Alien plant problems are increasing worldwide, and biocontrol offers the only safe, economic, and environmentally sustainable solution.