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      The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP) - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program


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          The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables.


          The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools ( n = 1545) with two control schools ( n = 752); all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance.


          HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention.

          Trial registration

          The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714) as of June 20 th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

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          Most cited references43

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          Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher Versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 4- to 12-Year-Olds: A Review

          Since its development, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used in both research and practice. The SDQ screens for positive and negative psychological attributes. This review aims to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of the SDQ for 4- to 12-year-olds. Results from 48 studies (N = 131,223) on reliability and validity of the parent and teacher SDQ are summarized quantitatively and descriptively. Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and inter-rater agreement are satisfactory for the parent and teacher versions. At subscale level, the reliability of the teacher version seemed stronger compared to that of the parent version. Concerning validity, 15 out of 18 studies confirmed the five-factor structure. Correlations with other measures of psychopathology as well as the screening ability of the SDQ are sufficient. This review shows that the psychometric properties of the SDQ are strong, particularly for the teacher version. For practice, this implies that the use of the SDQ as a screening instrument should be continued. Longitudinal research studies should investigate predictive validity. For both practice and research, we emphasize the use of a multi-informant approach.
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            Physical activity and performance at school: a systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment.

            To describe the prospective relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Prospective studies were identified from searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central, and Sportdiscus from 1990 through 2010. We screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility, rated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Studies had to report at least 1 physical activity or physical fitness measurement during childhood or adolescence. Studies had to report at least 1 academic performance or cognition measure during childhood or adolescence. We identified 10 observational and 4 intervention studies. The quality score of the studies ranged from 22% to 75%. Two studies were scored as high quality. Methodological quality scores were particularly low for the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments. Based on the results of the best-evidence synthesis, we found evidence of a significant longitudinal positive relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Participation in physical activity is positively related to academic performance in children. Because we found only 2 high-quality studies, future high-quality studies are needed to confirm our findings. These studies should thoroughly examine the dose-response relationship between physical activity and academic performance as well as explanatory mechanisms for this relationship.
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              Effectance Motivation Reconsidered Toward a Developmental Model


                Author and article information

                +47 41 20 42 96 , permorten.fredriksen@kristiania.no
                +47 92 20 45 98 , Ole.Hjelle@kristiania.no
                +47 48 24 14 12 , Asgeir.Mamen@kristiania.no
                +47 45 03 23 47 , Trine.Meza@kristiania.no
                +47 99 23 42 86 , AneCecilie.Westerberg@kristiania.no
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                28 April 2017
                28 April 2017
                : 17
                Kristiania University College - Department of Health Sciences, PB 1195 Sentrum, 0107 Oslo, Oslo Norway
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2017

                Public health
                cardio-metabolic,risk factors,school,physical activity,program,children
                Public health
                cardio-metabolic, risk factors, school, physical activity, program, children


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