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      The lipid story in chronic kidney disease: a long story with a happy end?

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality increase with the severity of kidney disease, reaching 30 times higher mortality rates in dialysis patients compared with the general population. Although dyslipidemia is a well-established CV risk factor in the general population, the relationship between lipid disorders and CV risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. Despite the clear evidence that statins reduce the risk of atherosclerotic events and death from cardiac causes in individuals without CKD, the use of statins in patients with kidney disease is significantly less frequent. For a long time, one of the explanations was the lack of a prospective, randomized, controlled study designed specifically to CKD patients. After recent publication of the data from Study of Heart and Renal Protection trial, given the safety and potential efficacy of statins, this lipid-lowering treatment should be administered more frequently to individuals with CKD stage 1–4, as well as those undergoing dialysis.

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          Most cited references 99

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

            Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, a benefit of statins in such patients who are undergoing hemodialysis has not been proved. We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective trial involving 2776 patients, 50 to 80 years of age, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. We randomly assigned patients to receive rosuvastatin, 10 mg daily, or placebo. The combined primary end point was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary end points included death from all causes and individual cardiac and vascular events. After 3 months, the mean reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels was 43% in patients receiving rosuvastatin, from a mean baseline level of 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). During a median follow-up period of 3.8 years, 396 patients in the rosuvastatin group and 408 patients in the placebo group reached the primary end point (9.2 and 9.5 events per 100 patient-years, respectively; hazard ratio for the combined end point in the rosuvastatin group vs. the placebo group, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.11; P=0.59). Rosuvastatin had no effect on individual components of the primary end point. There was also no significant effect on all-cause mortality (13.5 vs. 14.0 events per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.51). In patients undergoing hemodialysis, the initiation of treatment with rosuvastatin lowered the LDL cholesterol level but had no significant effect on the composite primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00240331.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              A malnutrition-inflammation score is correlated with morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

              Malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) occurs commonly in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and may correlate with increased morbidity and mortality. An optimal, comprehensive, quantitative system that assesses MICS could be a useful measure of clinical status and may be a predictor of outcome in MHD patients. We therefore attempted to develop and validate such an instrument, comparing it with conventional measures of nutrition and inflammation, as well as prospective hospitalization and mortality. Using components of the conventional Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), a semiquantitative scale with three severity levels, the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS), a fully quantitative scoring system consisting of 7 SGA components, with total score ranging between 7 (normal) and 35 (severely malnourished), was recently developed. To improve the DMS, we added three new elements to the 7 DMS components: body mass index, serum albumin level, and total iron-binding capacity to represent serum transferrin level. This new comprehensive Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) has 10 components, each with four levels of severity, from 0 (normal) to 3 (very severe). The sum of all 10 MIS components ranges from 0 to 30, denoting increasing degree of severity. These scores were compared with anthropometric measurements, near-infrared-measured body fat percentage, laboratory measures that included serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and 12-month prospective hospitalization and mortality rates. Eighty-three outpatients (44 men, 39 women; age, 59 +/- 15 years) on MHD therapy for at least 3 months (43 +/- 33 months) were evaluated at the beginning of this study and followed up for 1 year. The SGA, DMS, and MIS were assessed simultaneously on all patients by a trained physician. Case-mix-adjusted correlation coefficients for the MIS were significant for hospitalization days (r = 0.45; P < 0.001) and frequency of hospitalization (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). Compared with the SGA and DMS, most pertinent correlation coefficients were stronger with the MIS. The MIS, but not the SGA or DMS, correlated significantly with creatinine level, hematocrit, and CRP level. During the 12-month follow-up, 9 patients died and 6 patients left the cohort. The Cox proportional hazard-calculated relative risk for death for each 10-unit increase in the MIS was 10.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.28 to 47.64; P = 0.002). The MIS was superior to its components or different subversions for predicting mortality. The MIS appears to be a comprehensive scoring system with significant associations with prospective hospitalization and mortality, as well as measures of nutrition, inflammation, and anemia in MHD patients. The MIS may be superior to the conventional SGA and the DMS, as well as to individual laboratory values, as a predictor of dialysis outcome and an indicator of MICS.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +48-322552695 , +48-322553726 , awiecek@spskm.katowice.pl
                Journal
                Int Urol Nephrol
                Int Urol Nephrol
                International Urology and Nephrology
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0301-1623
                1573-2584
                2 October 2012
                2 October 2012
                2013
                : 45
                : 1273-1287
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Francuska 20-24, 40-027 Katowice, Poland
                Article
                296
                10.1007/s11255-012-0296-8
                3824376
                23054316
                © The Author(s) 2012
                Categories
                Nephrology - Editorial
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

                Nephrology

                statins, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease

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