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Effects of autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation on beta-adrenoceptor density and electrical activation pattern in a rabbit model of non-ischemic heart failure

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      Abstract

      Background

      Since only little is known on stem cell therapy in non-ischemic heart failure we wanted to know whether a long-term improvement of cardiac function in non-ischemic heart failure can be achieved by stem cell transplantation.

      Methods

      White male New Zealand rabbits were treated with doxorubicine (3 mg/kg/week; 6 weeks) to induce dilative non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Thereafter, we obtained autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and injected 1.5–2.0 Mio cells in 1 ml medium by infiltrating the myocardium via a left anterolateral thoracotomy in comparison to sham-operated rabbits. 4 weeks later intracardiac contractility was determined in-vivo using a Millar catheter. Thereafter, the heart was excised and processed for radioligand binding assays to detect β 1- and β 2-adrenoceptor density. In addition, catecholamine plasma levels were determined via HPLC. In a subgroup we investigated cardiac electrophysiology by use of 256 channel mapping.

      Results

      In doxorubicine-treated animals β-adrenoceptor density was significantly down-regulated in left ventricle and septum, but not in right ventricle, thereby indicating a typical left ventricular heart failure. Sham-operated rabbits exhibited the same down-regulation. In contrast, BMSC transplantation led to significantly less β-adrenoceptor down-regulation in septum and left ventricle. Cardiac contractility was significantly decreased in heart failure and sham-operated rabbits, but was significantly higher in BMSC-transplanted hearts. Norepinephrine and epinephrine plasma levels were enhanced in heart failure and sham-operated animals, while these were not different from normal in BMSC-transplanted animals. Electrophysiological mapping revealed unaltered electrophysiology and did not show signs of arrhythmogeneity.

      Conclusion

      BMSC transplantation improves sympathoadrenal dysregualtion in non-ischemic heart failure.

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      Most cited references 43

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      Intracoronary autologous bone-marrow cell transfer after myocardial infarction: the BOOST randomised controlled clinical trial.

      Emerging evidence suggests that stem cells and progenitor cells derived from bone marrow can be used to improve cardiac function in patients after acute myocardial infarction. In this randomised trial, we aimed to assess whether intracoronary transfer of autologous bone-marrow cells could improve global left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months' follow-up. After successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 60 patients were randomly assigned to either a control group (n=30) that received optimum postinfarction medical treatment, or a bone-marrow-cell group (n=30) that received optimum medical treatment and intracoronary transfer of autologous bone-marrow cells 4.8 days (SD 1.3) after PCI. Primary endpoint was global left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) change from baseline to 6 months' follow-up, as determined by cardiac MRI. Image analyses were done by two investigators blinded for treatment assignment. Analysis was per protocol. Global LVEF at baseline (determined 3.5 days [SD 1.5] after PCI) was 51.3 (9.3%) in controls and 50.0 (10.0%) in the bone-marrow cell group (p=0.59). After 6 months, mean global LVEF had increased by 0.7 percentage points in the control group and 6.7 percentage points in the bone-marrow-cell group (p=0.0026). Transfer of bone-marrow cells enhanced left-ventricular systolic function primarily in myocardial segments adjacent to the infarcted area. Cell transfer did not increase the risk of adverse clinical events, in-stent restenosis, or proarrhythmic effects. Intracoronary transfer of autologous bone-marrow-cells promotes improvement of left-ventricular systolic function in patients after acute myocardial infarction.
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        Repair of infarcted myocardium by autologous intracoronary mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation in humans.

        Experimental data suggest that bone marrow-derived cells may contribute to the healing of myocardial infarction (MI). For this reason, we analyzed 10 patients who were treated by intracoronary transplantation of autologous, mononuclear bone marrow cells (BMCs) in addition to standard therapy after MI. After standard therapy for acute MI, 10 patients were transplanted with autologous mononuclear BMCs via a balloon catheter placed into the infarct-related artery during balloon dilatation (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty). Another 10 patients with acute MI were treated by standard therapy alone. After 3 months of follow-up, the infarct region (determined by left ventriculography) had decreased significantly within the cell therapy group (from 30+/-13 to 12+/-7%, P=0.005) and was also significantly smaller compared with the standard therapy group (P=0.04). Likewise, infarction wall movement velocity increased significantly only in the cell therapy group (from 2.0+/-1.1 to 4.0+/-2.6 cm/s, P=0.028). Further cardiac examinations (dobutamine stress echocardiography, radionuclide ventriculography, and catheterization of the right heart) were performed for the cell therapy group and showed significant improvement in stroke volume index, left ventricular end-systolic volume and contractility (ratio of systolic pressure and end-systolic volume), and myocardial perfusion of the infarct region. These results demonstrate for the first time that selective intracoronary transplantation of autologous, mononuclear BMCs is safe and seems to be effective under clinical conditions. The marked therapeutic effect may be attributed to BMC-associated myocardial regeneration and neovascularization.
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          Regeneration of ischemic cardiac muscle and vascular endothelium by adult stem cells.

          Myocyte loss in the ischemically injured mammalian heart often leads to irreversible deficits in cardiac function. To identify a source of stem cells capable of restoring damaged cardiac tissue, we transplanted highly enriched hematopoietic stem cells, the so-called side population (SP) cells, into lethally irradiated mice subsequently rendered ischemic by coronary artery occlusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion. The engrafted SP cells (CD34(-)/low, c-Kit(+), Sca-1(+)) or their progeny migrated into ischemic cardiac muscle and blood vessels, differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, and contributed to the formation of functional tissue. SP cells were purified from Rosa26 transgenic mice, which express lacZ widely. Donor-derived cardiomyocytes were found primarily in the peri-infarct region at a prevalence of around 0.02% and were identified by expression of lacZ and alpha-actinin, and lack of expression of CD45. Donor-derived endothelial cells were identified by expression of lacZ and Flt-1, an endothelial marker shown to be absent on SP cells. Endothelial engraftment was found at a prevalence of around 3.3%, primarily in small vessels adjacent to the infarct. Our results demonstrate the cardiomyogenic potential of hematopoietic stem cells and suggest a therapeutic strategy that eventually could benefit patients with myocardial infarction.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Clinic for Cardiac Surgery, Heart Centre Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Germany
            [2 ]Institute for Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany
            [3 ]Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Leipzig, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Germany
            Contributors
            Journal
            J Cardiothorac Surg
            Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
            BioMed Central (London )
            1749-8090
            2006
            26 June 2006
            : 1
            : 17
            1533828
            1749-8090-1-17
            16800896
            10.1186/1749-8090-1-17
            Copyright © 2006 Dhein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research Article

            Surgery

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