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      The Role of Opioids in Pain Management in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review Article

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem. Pain is one of the most generally experienced symptoms by CKD patients. Pain management is a key clinical activity; nonetheless, insufficient pain management by health professionals keeps it up. Opioids as pain relievers are a class of naturally-derived and synthetic medications. They act through interactions with receptors in peripheral nerves. Numerous pharmacokinetic alterations happen with aging that influence drug disposition, metabolism, and quality of life. Acetaminophen alone, or combined with low-potency opioid dose is regarded as the safest pain-relieving choice for CKD. Morphine and codeine are probably eluded in renal impairment patients and used with excessive carefulness. Tramadol, oxycodone, and hydromorphone can be used by patient monitoring, while methadone, transdermal fentanyl, and buprenorphine seem to be safe to use in older non-dialysis patients with renal impairment. Consistent with the available literature, the main aim of this review was to explore the occurrence of chronic pain and its opioid treatment in CKD patients. According to this review, more and well-made randomized controlled trials are necessary to find appropriate opioid doses and explore the occurrence of side effects.

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          Most cited references 112

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          Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and age. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating CKD prevalence in general populations was conducted through literature searches in 8 databases. We assessed pooled data using a random effects model. Of 5,842 potential articles, 100 studies of diverse quality were included, comprising 6,908,440 patients. Global mean(95%CI) CKD prevalence of 5 stages 13·4%(11·7–15·1%), and stages 3–5 was 10·6%(9·2–12·2%). Weighting by study quality did not affect prevalence estimates. CKD prevalence by stage was Stage-1 (eGFR>90+ACR>30): 3·5% (2·8–4·2%); Stage-2 (eGFR 60–89+ACR>30): 3·9% (2·7–5·3%); Stage-3 (eGFR 30–59): 7·6% (6·4–8·9%); Stage-4 = (eGFR 29–15): 0·4% (0·3–0·5%); and Stage-5 (eGFR<15): 0·1% (0·1–0·1%). CKD has a high global prevalence with a consistent estimated global CKD prevalence of between 11 to 13% with the majority stage 3. Future research should evaluate intervention strategies deliverable at scale to delay the progression of CKD and improve CVD outcomes.
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            The prevalence of symptoms in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review.

            Symptoms in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are underrecognized. Prevalence studies have focused on single symptoms rather than on the whole range of symptoms experienced. This systematic review aimed to describe prevalence of all symptoms, to better understand total symptom burden. Extensive database, "gray literature," and hand searches were undertaken, by predefined protocol, for studies reporting symptom prevalence in ESRD populations on dialysis, discontinuing dialysis, or without dialysis. Prevalence data were extracted, study quality assessed by use of established criteria, and studies contrasted/combined to show weighted mean prevalence and range. Fifty-nine studies in dialysis patients, one in patients discontinuing dialysis, and none in patients without dialysis met the inclusion criteria. For the following symptoms, weighted mean prevalence (and range) were fatigue/tiredness 71% (12% to 97%), pruritus 55% (10% to 77%), constipation 53% (8% to 57%), anorexia 49% (25% to 61%), pain 47% (8% to 82%), sleep disturbance 44% (20% to 83%), anxiety 38% (12% to 52%), dyspnea 35% (11% to 55%), nausea 33% (15% to 48%), restless legs 30% (8%to 52%), and depression 27% (5%to 58%). Prevalence variations related to differences in symptom definition, period of prevalence, and level of severity reported. ESRD patients on dialysis experience multiple symptoms, with pain, fatigue, pruritus, and constipation in more than 1 in 2 patients. In patients discontinuing dialysis, evidence is more limited, but it suggests they too have significant symptom burden. No evidence is available on symptom prevalence in ESRD patients managed conservatively (without dialysis). The need for greater recognition of and research into symptom prevalence and causes, and interventions to alleviate them, is urgent.
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              End-of-life care preferences and needs: perceptions of patients with chronic kidney disease.

              Despite high mortality rates, surprisingly little research has been done to study chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients' preferences for end-of-life care. The objective of this study was to evaluate end-of-life care preferences of CKD patients to help identify gaps between current end-of-life care practice and patients' preferences and to help prioritize and guide future innovation in end-of-life care policy. A total of 584 stage 4 and stage 5 CKD patients were surveyed as they presented to dialysis, transplantation, or predialysis clinics in a Canadian, university-based renal program between January and April 2008. Participants reported relying on the nephrology staff for extensive end-of- life care needs not currently systematically integrated into their renal care, such as pain and symptom management, advance care planning, and psychosocial and spiritual support. Participants also had poor self-reported knowledge of palliative care options and of their illness trajectory. A total of 61% of patients regretted their decision to start dialysis. More patients wanted to die at home (36.1%) or in an inpatient hospice (28.8%) compared with in a hospital (27.4%). Less than 10% of patients reported having had a discussion about end-of-life care issues with their nephrologist in the past 12 months. Current end-of-life clinical practices do not meet the needs of patients with advanced CKD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Anesth Pain Med
                Anesth Pain Med
                10.5812/aapm
                Kowsar
                Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
                Kowsar
                2228-7523
                2228-7531
                20 October 2020
                October 2020
                : 10
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                [2 ]Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                [3 ]Research Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                [4 ]Emergency Medicine Research Team, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                [5 ]Department of Medical Sciences, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada
                [6 ]Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author: Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Email: h.soleimanpour@ 123456gmail.com , soleimanpourh@ 123456tbzmed.ac.ir
                Article
                10.5812/aapm.105754
                8207885
                34150565
                Copyright © 2020, Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                pain management, opioids, chronic kidney disease, dialysis

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