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      Role of Myeloperoxidase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Patients with CKD have a number of disorders in the organism, and the presence of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these patients is the subject of numerous studies. Chronic inflammation joined with oxidative stress contributes to the development of numerous complications: accelerated atherosclerosis process and cardiovascular disease, emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, development of malnutrition, anaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and so forth, affecting the prognosis and quality of life of patients with CKD. In this review we presented the potential role of the myeloperoxidase enzyme in the production of reactive/chlorinating intermediates and their role in oxidative damage to biomolecules in the body of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In addition, we discussed the role of modified lipoprotein particles under the influence of prooxidant MPO intermediates in the development of endothelial changes and cardiovascular complications in renal failure.

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          Most cited references81

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          Association between albuminuria, kidney function, and inflammatory biomarker profile in CKD in CRIC.

          Increased risk of mortality in patients with CKD has been attributed to inflammation. However, the association between kidney function, albuminuria, and biomarkers of inflammation has not been examined in a large cohort of CKD patients. This study measured the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, and serum albumin in 3939 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study between June 2003 and September 2008. An inflammation score was established based on plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP, and fibrinogen. Estimated GFR (eGFR) and serum cystatin C were used as measures of kidney function. Albuminuria was quantitated by urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). Plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP, and fibrinogen were higher among participants with lower levels of eGFR. Inflammation score was higher among those with lower eGFR and higher UACR. In regression analysis adjusted for multiple covariates, eGFR, cystatin C, and UACR were strongly associated with fibrinogen, serum albumin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Each unit increase in eGFR, cystatin C, and UACR was associated with a -1.2% (95% confidence interval, -1.4, -1), 64.9% (56.8, 73.3) and 0.6% (0.4, 0.8) change in IL-6, respectively (P<0.001). Biomarkers of inflammation were inversely associated with measures of kidney function and positively with albuminuria.
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            Emerging biomarkers for evaluating cardiovascular risk in the chronic kidney disease patient: how do new pieces fit into the uremic puzzle?

            Premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), including stroke, peripheral vascular disease, sudden death, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure, is a notorious problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because the presence of CVD is independently associated with kidney function decline, it appears that the relationship between CKD and CVD is reciprocal or bidirectional, and that it is this association that leads to the vicious circle contributing to premature death. As randomized, placebo-controlled trials have so far been disappointing and unable to show a survival benefit of various treatment strategies, such a lipid-lowering, increased dialysis dose and normalization of hemoglobin, the risk factor profile seems to be different in CKD compared with the general population. Indeed, seemingly paradoxical associations between traditional risk factors and cardiovascular outcome in patients with advanced CKD have complicated our efforts to identify the real cardiovascular culprits. This review focuses on the many new pieces that need to be fit into the complicated puzzle of uremic vascular disease, including persistent inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and vascular ossification. Each of these is not only highly prevalent in CKD but also more strongly linked to CVD in these patients than in the general population. However, a causal relationship between these new markers and CVD in CKD patients remains to be established. Finally, two novel disciplines, proteomics and epigenetics, will be discussed, because these tools may be helpful in the understanding of the discussed vascular risk factors.
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              Protein carbamylation links inflammation, smoking, uremia and atherogenesis.

              Post-translational modification and functional impairment of proteins through carbamylation is thought to promote vascular dysfunction during end-stage renal disease. Cyanate, a reactive species in equilibrium with urea, carbamylates protein lysine residues to form epsilon-carbamyllysine (homocitrulline), altering protein structure and function. We now report the discovery of an alternative and quantitatively dominant mechanism for cyanate formation and protein carbamylation at sites of inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque: myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate, an anion abundant in blood whose levels are elevated in smokers. We also show that myeloperoxidase-catalyzed lipoprotein carbamylation facilitates multiple pro-atherosclerotic activities, including conversion of low-density lipoprotein into a ligand for macrophage scavenger receptor A1 recognition, cholesterol accumulation and foam-cell formation. In two separate clinical studies (combined n = 1,000 subjects), plasma levels of protein-bound homocitrulline independently predicted increased risk of coronary artery disease, future myocardial infarction, stroke and death. We propose that protein carbamylation is a mechanism linking inflammation, smoking, uremia and coronary artery disease pathogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2016
                3 April 2016
                : 2016
                : 1069743
                Affiliations
                1Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica 38220, Serbia
                2Institute of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica 38220, Serbia
                3Institute of Pathophysiology, Medical Faculty Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica 38220, Serbia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Alexandra Scholze

                Article
                10.1155/2016/1069743
                4834151
                27127544
                37e00562-f94f-4578-804f-529cfa24b985
                Copyright © 2016 Bojana Kisic et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 11 February 2016
                : 14 March 2016
                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine

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