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      Delayed tracking and inequality of opportunity: Gene-environment interactions in educational attainment

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          Abstract

          There are concerns that ability tracking at a young age increases unequal opportunities for children of different socioeconomic background to develop their potential. To disentangle family influence and potential ability, we applied moderation models to twin data on secondary educational track level from the Netherlands Twin Register ( N = 8847). Delaying tracking to a later age is associated with a lower shared environmental influence and a larger genetic influence on track level in adolescence. This is in line with the idea that delaying tracking improves equality of opportunity. Our results further suggest that this is mostly because delaying tracking reduces the indirect influence of family background on track level via the test performance of students. Importantly, delaying tracking improves the realization of genetic potential especially among students with low test scores, while it lowers shared environmental influence on track level for students of all test performance levels.

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            EXPLAINING EDUCATIONAL DIFFERENTIALS: TOWARDS A FORMAL RATIONAL ACTION THEORY

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                a.knigge@uu.nl
                Journal
                NPJ Sci Learn
                NPJ Sci Learn
                NPJ Science of Learning
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2056-7936
                4 May 2022
                4 May 2022
                2022
                : 7
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.5477.1, ISNI 0000000120346234, Department of Sociology/ICS, , Utrecht University, ; Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [2 ]GRID grid.12380.38, ISNI 0000 0004 1754 9227, Department of Sociology, , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ]GRID grid.12380.38, ISNI 0000 0004 1754 9227, Department of Biological Psychology, , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5687-2954
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5041-7347
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9877-6215
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9042-7419
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7099-7972
                Article
                122
                10.1038/s41539-022-00122-1
                9068802
                35508471
                37e2e977-06db-4186-93e4-ab8337b26c1c
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 23 April 2021
                : 18 March 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003246, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research);
                Award ID: 016.Veni.185.535
                Award ID: 056-32-010
                Award ID: 481-08-011
                Award ID: 480-15-001/674
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
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                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                education,human behaviour,sociology,policy
                education, human behaviour, sociology, policy

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