Although anagrelide is widely used in the treatment of thrombocythemia in myeloproliferative diseases, there is currently limited information on the efficacy and toxicity of its long-term use. This prospective study investigated clinical toxicity and efficacy of anagrelide during two years of treatment. A multicenter, open, phase II study of anagrelide treatment was performed by the Swedish Myeloproliferative Disorder Study Group. The study included 60 patients with thrombocythemia due to myeloproliferative disease, 42 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 17 with polycythemia vera (PV) and one with myelofibrosis (MF). Complete response (CR), defined as a platelet count 9 at 24 months. After two years, 50% (n=30) of the patients continued anagrelide treatment. Side effects and toxic discontinuation rates were higher than in previous studies, probably because this is the first long-term prospective study of the feasibility and toxicity of anagrelide treatment. Nevertheless, anagrelide is a valuable alternative for treatment of thrombocythemia in myeloproliferative disorders for patients who tolerate the drug well.