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      Intracellular Application of Calmidazolium Increases Ca 2+ Current through Activation of Protein Kinase A in Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

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          Abstract

          In the present study, we investigated the actions of calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) on the L-type Ca<sup>2+</sup> currents (I<sub>Ca(L)</sub>) of cultured vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells (A7r5 cell line), using the whole-cell voltage clamp method. The peak I<sub>Ba</sub> (Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel using 5 m M Ba<sup>2+</sup> as charge carrier) was evoked every 15 s by a test potential to +10 mV from a holding potential of –60 mV. To test the effect of CaM on I<sub>Ba</sub>, 1 µ M calmidazolium (CMZ), an inhibitor of CaM, was added to the pipette solution (pCa of 6.5 or 300 n M [Ca]<sub>i</sub>). The amplitude of maximally activated I<sub>Ba</sub> was –4.3 ± 0.5 pA/pF (n = 13) for control and –8.1 ± 0.9 pA/pF (n = 14) in the presence of CMZ. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.016). The CMZ stimulation of I<sub>Ba</sub> was not abolished when 5 µ M KN-62, a specific inhibitor of CaMK-II, was included in the pipette (–9.5 ± 1.1 pA/pF; n = 10). Introduction of CaMK-II itself intracellularly had no effect on the basal I<sub>Ba</sub>. On the other hand, the CMZ stimulation of I<sub>Ba</sub> was prevented by both H-7, a nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor, and H-89, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase A (PK-A). Since CMZ is a strong inhibitor of Ca<sup>2+</sup>/CaM-dependent phosphodiesterase (type I PDE), we studied the effect of 8-methoxymethyl-3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (MIBMX), another specific inhibitor of the PDE. MIBMX, like CMZ, stimulated I<sub>Ba</sub>: control, –4.6 ± 0.4 pA/pF (n = 10); MIBMX, –9.6 ± 1.2 (n = 8), and CMZ, –7.9 ± 0.9 (n = 15). 0.1 m M 8Br-cAMP, a membrane permeable cAMP analogue, stimulated I<sub>Ba</sub> by +42%: before, –3.7 ± 0.7 pA/pF; after, –5.2 ± 1.0 (n = 6). In conclusion, Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels of VSM cells might not be directly regulated by the CaM/CaMK-II pathway. Therefore, the CMZ stimulation of I<sub>Ba</sub> might occur due to the increase in intracellular concentration of cAMP produced by inhibition of CaM-dependent PDE.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Effects of selective inhibitors on cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rabbit aorta.

          In this study three forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isolated from rabbit aorta were pharmacologically characterized, and the consequence of selective inhibition of calmodulin-stimulated PDE (CaM-PDE) and cGMP specific PDE (cG-PDE) was evaluated using PDE inhibitors. The cG-PDE (F1) was selectively inhibited by M&B 22948 (IC50 = 0.5 microM) and dipyridamole (IC50 = 7 microM). The cAMP-PDE (cA-PDE, F3) was inhibited more effectively by the cA-PDE inhibitor milrinone than by other PDE inhibitors. The cA-PDE preparation appeared to contain both cG-inhibited PDE and cG-insensitive PDE based on an additive inhibition of the activity by milrinone and SQ 65442, respective inhibitors of these enzymes. Vinpocetine, 8-methoxymethyl isobutylmethylxanthine (8-MeOMeMIX) and M&B 22948 effectively inhibited CaM-PDE (F2). Vinpocetine was a more selective inhibitor of CaM-PDE than M&B 22948 or 8-MeOMeMIX. CaM-PDEs isolated from rabbit aorta and bovine brain exhibited a similar sensitivity to these inhibitors. Seventy-two percent of the cGMP-hydrolyzing activity of this rabbit aortic CaM-PDE preparation was immunoadsorbed to monoclonal antibody (ACC-1) against CaM bound to brain CaM-PDE. Vinpocetine, 8-MeOMeMIX and M&B 22948 at concentrations (30 and 100 microM) which inhibit CaM-PDE greater than 60% increased cGMP but not cAMP levels in l-norepinephrine (NE) preincubated rabbit aortic slices. At concentrations selectively inhibiting cG-PDE, dipyridamole and M&B 22948 increased cGMP levels in untreated slices but failed to increase cGMP levels significantly in NE-treated slices. By contrast, vinpocetine failed to increase cGMP significantly in untreated slices, although it increased cGMP levels in NE or KCl preincubated slices. These data indicate that, in activated (precontracted) aorta, CaM-PDE is a major enzyme, whereas in untreated aorta cG-PDE is a predominant enzyme for the hydrolysis of cGMP. This study also shows a usefulness of selective inhibitors in identifying different forms of PDE and similar drug sensitivities and immunoadsorption of aortic and brain CaM-PDEs by a monoclonal antibody.
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            Calcium-dependent enhancement of calcium current in smooth muscle by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

            Calcium entry through voltage-activated Ca2+ channels is important in regulating many cellular functions. Activation of these channels in many cell types results in feedback regulation of channel activity. Mechanisms linking Ca2+ channel activity with its downregulation have been described, but little is known of the events responsible for the enhancement of Ca2+ current that in many cells follows Ca2+ channel activation and an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Here we investigate how this positive feedback is achieved in single smooth muscle cells. We find that in these cells voltage-activated calcium current is persistently but reversibly enhanced after periods of activation. This persistent enhancement of the Ca2+ current is mediated by activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II because it is blocked when either the rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ is inhibited or activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is prevented by specific peptide inhibitors of calcium-calmodulin or calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II itself. This mechanism may be important in different forms of Ca2+ current potentiation, such as those that depend on prior Ca2+ channel activation or are a result of agonist-induced release of Ca2+ from internal stores.
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              In situ Ca2+ dependence for activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in vascular smooth muscle cells.

              Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) and development of the Ca2+/CaM-independent (autonomous) form of the kinase was investigated in cultured vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Within 15 s of ionomycin (1 microM) exposure 52.7 +/- 4.4% of the kinase became autonomous, a response that was partially maintained for at least 10 min. This correlated with 32P phosphorylation of CaM kinase II delta-subunits in situ and was abolished by pretreatment with the CaM kinase II inhibitor KN-93. The in situ Ca2+ dependence for generating autonomous CaM kinase II was determined in cells selectively permeabilized to Ca2+ and depleted of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ by pretreatment with thapsigargin. Analysis of the resulting curve revealed an EC50 (concentration producing 50% of maximal response) of 692 +/- 28 nM [Ca2+]i, a maximum of 68 +/- 2% of the total activity becoming autonomous reflecting nearly complete activation of CaM kinase II and a Hill slope of 3, indicating a highly cooperative process. Based on this dependence and measured [Ca2+]i responses in intact cells, increases in autonomous activity stimulated by angiotensin II, vasopressin and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (4.6-, 2-, and 1.7-fold, respectively) were unexpectedly high. In intact cells stimulated by ionomycin, the correlation between autonomous activity and [Ca2+]i resulted in a parallel curve with an EC50 of 304 +/- 23 nM [Ca2+]i. This apparent increase in Ca2+ sensitivity for generating autonomous activity in intact VSM cells was eliminated by thapsigargin pretreatment. We conclude that alteration of [Ca2+]i over a physiological range activates CaM kinase II in VSM and that this process is facilitated by release of Ca2+ from intracellular pools which initiates cooperative autophosphorylation and consequent generation of autonomous CaM kinase II activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1998
                October 1998
                28 October 1998
                : 35
                : 5
                : 303-309
                Affiliations
                a Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; b 1st Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
                Article
                25599 J Vasc Res 1998;35:303–309
                10.1159/000025599
                9789110
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 22, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Paper

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