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      Scapular Muscle Recruitment Patterns: Trapezius Muscle Latency with and without Impingement Symptoms

      1 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 1
      The American Journal of Sports Medicine
      SAGE Publications

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          Most cited references36

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          Anterior Acromioplasty for the Chronic Impingement Syndrome in the Shoulder

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            Impingement of the deep surface of the supraspinatus tendon on the posterosuperior glenoid rim: An arthroscopic study.

            Seventeen athletes presenting with unexplained shoulder pain on throwing underwent arthroscopic examination. All but one practiced a throwing sport. The dominant arm was involved in all patients except one bodybuilder. Their mean age was 25 years (range 15 to 30 years), and they had symptoms present for a mean of 27 months. None had clinical, radiologic, or arthroscopic evidence of anterior instability. Preoperative clinical examination typically revealed localized pain on full external rotation and 90° abduction, signs of rupture of the rotator cuff, and positive impingement sign. In 10 cases computed tomographic arthrogram showed evidence of abnormality at the posterior edge of the glenoid. The mean humeral retrotorsion was 10° (range 5° to 30°). Under arthroscopy, with the arm placed in full external rotation and 90° abduction (the throwing position), impingement was found between the posterosuperior border of the glenoid and the undersurface of the tendinous insertions of supraspinatus and infraspinatus. A partial rupture of the cuff, which was demonstrated by arthrogram, was confirmed in eight patients, whereas a partial capsulotendinous rupture, which was not demonstrated by arthrogram, was seen in nine patients. Twelve patients had further lesions of the posterosuperior labrum. This study suggests that in addition to Neer's "impingement syndrome" and Jobe's "instability with secondary impingement," impingement of the undersurface of the cuff on the posterosuperior glenoid labrum may be a cause of painful structural disease of the shoulder in the thrower. Copyright © 1992 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Dynamic electromyographic analysis of the throwing shoulder with glenohumeral instability.

              Fifteen male athletes who were skilled in throwing and who had chronic anterior instability of the shoulder (Group 1) were evaluated by dynamic intramuscular electromyography while pitching a baseball. Indwelling wire electrodes recorded the levels of activity in the biceps, middle deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, pectoralis major, subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, and serratus anterior throughout the entire pitching sequence. These signals were synchronized electronically with records of the pitch that were made using high-speed photography. The pitch was divided into five phases: wind-up, early cocking, late cocking, acceleration, and follow-through. The results were compared with previous identical studies of twelve healthy, uninjured male athletes who were skilled in throwing (Group 2). Activity increased mildly in the biceps and supraspinatus in Group 1 as compared with Group 2. Similar patterns of activity were demonstrated in the deltoid. In Group 1 the infraspinatus had increased activity during early cocking and follow-through but had decreased activity during late cocking. The pectoralis major, subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, and serratus anterior in Group 1 all were shown to have markedly decreased activity. The study revealed a difference between Groups 1 and 2 in all of the muscles of the shoulder that were tested with the exception of the deltoid. The mildly increased activity levels of the biceps and supraspinatus that were found in Group 1 may compensate for anterior laxity. The marked reduction in activity in the pectoralis major, subscapularis, and latissimus dorsi added to the anterior instability by decreasing the normal internal-rotation force that is needed during the phases of late cocking and acceleration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The American Journal of Sports Medicine
                Am J Sports Med
                SAGE Publications
                0363-5465
                1552-3365
                August 30 2017
                July 2003
                August 30 2017
                July 2003
                : 31
                : 4
                : 542-549
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Hospital, Ghent
                [2 ] private practice, Gravenwezel, Belgium
                Article
                10.1177/03635465030310041101
                12860542
                37e7c352-38c8-4374-b8ad-8b54c72fa43b
                © 2003

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