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      Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos.

      The New England journal of medicine

      Aged, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, education, Electric Countershock, instrumentation, Female, Gambling, Heart Arrest, mortality, therapy, Hospitalization, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Security Measures, Survival Rate, Time Factors, Volunteers

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          Abstract

          The use of automated external defibrillators by persons other than paramedics and emergency medical technicians is advocated by the American Heart Association and other organizations. However, there are few data on the outcomes when the devices are used by nonmedical personnel for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We studied a prospective series of cases of sudden cardiac arrest in casinos. Casino security officers were instructed in the use of automated external defibrillators. The locations where the defibrillators were stored in the casinos were chosen to make possible a target interval of three minutes or less from collapse to the first defibrillation. Our protocol called for a defibrillation first (if feasible), followed by manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The primary outcome was survival to discharge from the hospital. Automated external defibrillators were used, 105 patients whose initial cardiac rhythm was ventricular fibrillation. Fifty-six of the patients 153 percent) survived to discharge from the hospital. Among the 90 patients whose collapse was witnessed (86 percent), the clinically relevant time intervals were a mean (+/-SD) of 3.5+/-2.9 minutes from collapse to attachment of the defibrillator, 4.4+/-2.9 minutes from collapse to the delivery of the first defibrillation shock, and 9.8+/-4.3 minutes from collapse to The arrival of the paramedics. The survival rate was 74 percent for those who received their first defibrillation no later than three minutes after a witnessed collapse and 49 percent for those who received their first defibrillation after more than three minutes. Rapid defibrillation by nonmedical personnel using an automated external defibrillator can improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Intervals of no more than three minutes from collapse to defibrillation are necessary to achieve the highest survival rates.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Estimating effectiveness of cardiac arrest interventions: a logistic regression survival model.

          The study objective was to develop a simple, generalizable predictive model for survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Logistic regression analysis of two retrospective series (n=205 and n=1667, respectively) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests was performed on data sets from a Southwestern city (population, 415,000; area, 406 km2) and a Northwestern county (population, 1,038,000; area, 1399 km2). Both are served by similar two-tiered emergency response systems. All arrests were witnessed and occurred before the arrival of emergency responders, and the initial cardiac rhythm observed was ventricular fibrillation. The main outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge. Patient age, initiation of CPR by bystanders, interval from collapse to CPR, interval from collapse to defibrillation, bystander CPR/collapse-to-CPR interval interaction, and collapse-to-CPR/collapse-to-defibrillation interval interaction were significantly associated with survival. There was not a significant difference between observed survival rates at the two sites after control for significant predictors. A simplified predictive model retaining only collapse to CPR and collapse to defibrillation intervals performed comparably to the more complicated explanatory model. The effectiveness of prehospital interventions for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest may be estimated from their influence on collapse to CPR and collapse to defibrillation intervals. A model derived from combined data from two geographically distinct populations did not identify site as a predictor of survival if clinically relevant predictor variables were controlled for. This model can be generalized to other US populations and used to project the local effectiveness of interventions to improve cardiac arrest survival.
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            Use of automated external defibrillators by a U.S. airline.

            Passengers who have ventricular fibrillation aboard commercial aircraft rarely survive, owing to the delay in obtaining emergency care and defibrillation. In 1997, a major U.S. airline began equipping its aircraft with automated external defibrillators. Flight attendants were trained in the use of the defibrillator and applied the device when passengers had a lack of consciousness, pulse, or respiration. The automated external defibrillator was also used as a monitor for other medical emergencies, generally at the direction of a passenger who was a physician. The electrocardiogram that was obtained during each use of the device was analyzed by two arrhythmia specialists for appropriateness of use. We analyzed data on all 200 instances in which the defibrillators were used between June 1, 1997, and July 15, 1999. Automated external defibrillators were used for 200 patients (191 on the aircraft and 9 in the terminal), including 99 with documented loss of consciousness. Electrocardiographic data were available for 185 patients. The administration of shock was advised in all 14 patients who had electrocardiographically documented ventricular fibrillation, and no shock was advised in the remaining patients (sensitivity and specificity of the defibrillator in identifying ventricular fibrillation, 100 percent). The first shock successfully defibrillated the heart in 13 patients (defibrillation was withheld in 1 case at the family's request). The rate of survival to discharge from the hospital after shock with the automated external defibrillator was 40 percent. A total of 36 patients either died or were resuscitated after cardiac arrest. No complications arose from use of the automated external defibrillator as a monitor in conscious passengers. The use of the automated external defibrillator aboard commercial aircraft is effective, with an excellent rate of survival to discharge from the hospital after conversion of ventricular fibrillation. There are not likely to be complications when the device is used as a monitor in the absence of ventricular fibrillation.
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              Outcome of CPR in a large metropolitan area--where are the survivors?

              Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in cities with populations of more than 1 million has not been studied adequately. This study was undertaken to determine the overall survival rate for Chicago and the effect of previously reported variables on survival, and to compare the observed survival rates with those previously reported. Consecutive prehospital arrest patients were studied prospectively during 1987. The study area was the city of Chicago, which has more than 3 million inhabitants in 228 square miles. The emergency medical services system, with 55 around-the-clock ambulances and 550 paramedics, is single-tiered and responds to more than 200,000 emergencies per year. We studied 3,221 victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on whom paramedics attempted resuscitation. Ninety-one percent of patients were pronounced dead in emergency departments, 7% died in hospitals, and 2% survived to hospital discharge. Survival was significantly greater with bystander-witnessed arrest, bystander-initiated CPR, paramedic-witnessed arrest, initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation, and shorter treatment intervals. The overall survival rates were significantly lower than those reported in most previous studies, all based on smaller communities; they were consistent with the rates reported in the one comparable study of a large city. The single factor that most likely contributed to the poor overall survival was the relatively long interval between collapse and defibrillation. Logistical, demographic, and other special characteristics of large cities may have affected the rates. To improve treatment of cardiac arrest in large cities and maximize the use of community resources, we recommend further study of comparable metropolitan areas using standardized terms and methodology. Detailed analysis of each component of the emergency medical services systems will aid in making improvements to maximize survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                11071670
                10.1056/NEJM200010263431701

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