Elodie Rey 1 , Michael Abrouk 1 , Gabriel Keeble‐Gagnère 2 , Miroslava Karafiátová 1 , Jan Vrána 1 , Sandrine Balzergue 3 , 4 , 5 , Ludivine Soubigou‐Taconnat 3 , 4 , Véronique Brunaud 3 , 4 , Marie‐Laure Martin‐Magniette 3 , 4 , 6 , Takashi R. Endo 7 , Jan Bartoš 1 , International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC), Rudi Appels 8 , Jaroslav Doležel , 1
13 April 2018
Despite a long history, the production of useful alien introgression lines in wheat remains difficult mainly due to linkage drag and incomplete genetic compensation. In addition, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of foreign chromatin on plant phenotype. Here, a comparison of the transcriptomes of barley, wheat and a wheat–barley 7 HL addition line allowed the transcriptional impact both on 7 HL genes of a non‐native genetic background and on the wheat gene complement as a result of the presence of 7 HL to be assessed. Some 42% (389/923) of the 7 HL genes assayed were differentially transcribed, which was the case for only 3% (960/35 301) of the wheat gene complement. The absence of any transcript in the addition line of a suite of chromosome 7A genes implied the presence of a 36 Mbp deletion at the distal end of the 7 AL arm; this deletion was found to be in common across the full set of Chinese Spring/Betzes barley addition lines. The remaining differentially transcribed wheat genes were distributed across the whole genome. The up‐regulated barley genes were mostly located in the proximal part of the 7 HL arm, while the down‐regulated ones were concentrated in the distal part; as a result, genes encoding basal cellular functions tended to be transcribed, while those encoding specific functions were suppressed. An insight has been gained into gene transcription in an alien introgression line, thereby providing a basis for understanding the interactions between wheat and exotic genes in introgression materials.