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      Differential Expression Patterns of Crystallin Genes during Ocular Development of Olive Flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

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          Olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is one of the most widely cultured fish species in Korea. Although olive flounder receive attention from aquaculture and fisheries and extensive research has been conducted eye morphological change in metamorphosis, but little information was known to molecular mechanism and gene expression of eye development- related genes during the early part of eye formation period. For the reason of eyesight is the most important sense in flounder larvae to search prey, the screening and identification of expressed genes in the eye will provide useful insight into the molecular regulation mechanism of eye development in olive flounder. Through the search of an olive flounder DNA database of expressed sequence tags (EST), we found a partial sequence that was similar to crystallin beta A1 and gamma S. Microscopic observation of retinal formation correspond with the time of expression of the crystallin beta A1 and gamma S gene in the developmental stage, these result suggesting that beta A1 and gamma S play a vital role in the remodeling of the retina during eye development. The expression of crystallin beta A1 and gamma S were obviously strong in eye at all tested developing stage, it is also hypothesized that crystallin acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent protein aggregation during maturation and aging in the eye.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The development of vision in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

          We studied the development and maturation of the visual system by determining when zebrafish begin to see and to move their eyes. This information was correlated with the time courses of the development of the retina, the retinofugal projection, the retinal image, and the extraocular muscles, to obtain an integrated picture of early visual development. Two visual behaviors were monitored over 48-96 hr postfertilization (hpf). The startle response (body twitch) was evoked by an abrupt decrease in light intensity. The optokinetic response (tracking eye movements) was evoked by rotation of a striped drum. Visually evoked startle developed over 68-79 hpf, more than 20 hr after the onset of a touch-evoked startle. It was not seen in eyeless fish, excluding a role for nonretinal light senses. Tracking eye movements developed over 73-80 hpf. They were always in the direction of drum rotation, even when the fish had been light deprived from blastula stage, ruling out a "trial and error" period of learning to track the drum. The image formed by the ocular lens was examined in intact fish made transparent by suppressing the formation of melanin. The eye was initially far sighted and gradually improved, so that by 72 hpf the image plane coincided with the photoreceptor layer. The extraocular muscles assumed their adult configuration between 66 and 72 hpf. Thus, the retinal image and functional extraocular muscles appeared nearly simultaneously with the onset of tracking eye movements and probably represent the last events in the construction of this behavior.
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            Lens crystallins: the evolution and expression of proteins for a highly specialized tissue.

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              Lens crystallins: gene recruitment and evolutionary dynamism.

               Graeme Wistow (1993)
              In a novel evolutionary process, enzymes and stress proteins have undergone direct gene recruitment as eye lens crystallins in a number of independent events. This may have allowed a dynamic response to changing visual environment during evolution. In spite of their diversity, many crystallins may share an origin in essential developmental processes such as cell elongation.

                Author and article information

                Balsaenggwa Saengsig
                Balsaenggwa Saengsig
                Development & Reproduction/Balsaeng'gwa saengsig
                Korean Society of Developmental Biology
                December 2012
                : 16
                : 4
                : 301-307
                Genetics and Breeding Research Center, NFRDI, Geoje 656-842, Korea
                Author notes
                [] Corresponding author: Jeong Ho Lee, Genetics and Breeding Research Center, NFRDI, Geoje 656-842, Korea. Phone: +82-55-639-5811, Fax: +82-55-639-5809, E-mail: jhlee7124@
                © Korean Society of Developmental Biology. All Rights Reserved

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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