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      HCF-1 encoded by baculovirus AcMNPV is required for productive nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of non-permissive Tn368 cells

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          Abstract

          Baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) replicates in both Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 and Trichoplusia ni Tn368 cells, whereas AcMNPV defective in hcf-1 (host cell-factor 1) gene productively infects only Sf21 cells, indicating that HCF-1 is indispensable for the AcMNPV productive infection of Tn368 cells. Here, we demonstrated that HCF-1 protein transiently expressed in Tn368 cells promotes the DNA synthesis of Hyphantria cunea MNPV (HycuMNPV), Orygia pseudotsugata MNPV and Bombyx mori NPV, which are normally unable to replicate in Tn368 cells. We also demonstrated that a recombinant HycuMNPV harboring the hcf-1 gene successfully replicates in Tn368 cells, generating substantial yields of progeny viruses and polyhedra. These results indicate that HCF-1 encoded by AcMNPV is an essential viral factor for productive NPV infection of Tn368 cells. Taken together with the previous findings on HRF-1 (host range factor 1), the present results provide strong evidence that viral genes acquired through horizontal gene transfer play an important role in baculovirus evolution, serving to expand the host range of baculoviruses.

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          The genome sequence and evolution of baculoviruses.

          Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of 13 baculoviruses revealed a core set of 30 genes, 20 of which have known functions. Phylogenetic analyses of these 30 genes yielded a tree with 4 major groups: the genus Granulovirus (GVs), the group I and II lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), and the dipteran NPV, CuniNPV. These major divisions within the family Baculoviridae were also supported by phylogenies based on gene content and gene order. Gene content mapping has revealed the patterns of gene acquisitions and losses that have taken place during baculovirus evolution, and it has highlighted the fluid nature of baculovirus genomes. The identification of shared protein phylogenetic profiles provided evidence for two putative DNA repair systems and for viral proteins specific for infection of lymantrid hosts. Examination of gene order conservation revealed a core gene cluster of four genes, helicase, lef-5, ac96, and 38K(ac98), whose relative positions are conserved in all baculovirus genomes.
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            Established insect cell line from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

            W Hink (1970)
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              Cloning and characterization of a dronc homologue in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

              We cloned and characterized a novel Bombyx mori homologue (bm-dronc) of Drosophila melanogaster dronc (dm-dronc), which could encode a polypeptide of 438 amino acid residues. Bm-Dronc shares relatively low amino acid sequence identities of 25% and 26% with Dm-Dronc and Aedes aegypti Dronc (Aa-Dronc), respectively. Bm-Dronc has the sequence QACRG surrounding the catalytic site (C), which is consistent with the QAC(R/Q/G)(G/E) consensus sequence in most caspases but distinct from the sequences PFCRG and SICRG of Dm-Dronc and Aa-Dronc, respectively. Bm-Dronc possesses a long N-terminal prodomain containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), a p20 domain and a p10 domain, exhibiting cleavage activities on synthetic substrates Ac-VDVAD-AMC, Ac-IETD-AMC and Ac-LEHD-AMC, which are preferred by human initiator caspases-2, -8 and -9, respectively. Bm-Dronc transiently expressed in insect cells and Escherichia coli cells underwent spontaneous cleavage and caused apoptosis and stimulation of caspase-3-like protease activity in various lepidopteran cell lines, but not in the dipteran cell line D. melanogaster S2. The apoptosis and the stimulation of caspase-3-like protease activity induced by Bm-Dronc overexpression were abrogated upon transfection with either a double-stranded RNA against bm-dronc or a plasmid expressing functional anti-apoptotic protein Hycu-IAP3 encoded by the baculovirus Hyphantria cunea multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MNPV). Apoptosis induction in BM-N cells by infection with a p35-defective Autographa californica MNPV or exposure to actinomycin D and UV promoted the cleavage of Bm-Dronc. These results indicate that Bm-Dronc serves as the initiator caspase responsible for the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mochiko@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                19 June 2017
                19 June 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0001 0943 978X, GRID grid.27476.30, Laboratory of Sericulture and Entomoresources, , Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, ; Nagoya, 464-8601 Japan
                Article
                3710
                10.1038/s41598-017-03710-z
                5476645
                28630398
                3801e795-9a72-4dc1-87f1-4b4ca0faaa8b
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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