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      Spatial Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Southern Ontario As Measured in Indoor and Outdoor Window Organic Films

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      Environmental Science & Technology

      American Chemical Society (ACS)

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          Abstract

          Organic films were collected from indoor and outdoor window surfaces, along an urban-rural transect extending northward from Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and analyzed for 41 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDE). For exterior films, urban sigmaPBDE concentrations were approximately 10x greater than rural concentrations, indicating an urban-rural gradient and greater PBDE sources in urban areas. Urban films ranged from 2.5 to 14.5 ng/m2 (mean = 9.0 ng/ m2), excluding the regional "hotspot" Electronics Recycling Facility, compared to 1.1 and 0.56 ng/m2 at the Suburban and Rural sites. Interior urban films (mean = 34.4 ng/m2) were 3 times greater than rural films (10.3 ng/m2) and were representative of variations in building characteristics. Indoor films were 1.5-20 times greater than outdoor films, consistent with indoor sources of PBDEs and enhanced degradation in outdoor films. Congener profiles were dominated by BDE-209 (51.1%), consistent with deca-BDE as the main source mixture, followed by congeners from the penta-BDE mixture (BDE-99:13.6% and -47:9.4%) and some octa-BDE (BDE-183:1.5%). Congener patterns suggest a degradative loss of lower brominated compounds in outdoor films versus indoor films. Gas-phase air concentrations were back-calculated from film concentrations using the film-air partition coefficient (K(FA)). Mean calculated air concentrations were 4.8 pg/m3 for outdoor and 42.1 pg/m3 for indoor urban sites, indicating that urban indoor air is a source of PBDEs to urban outdoor air and the outdoor regional environment.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Environmental Science & Technology
          Environ. Sci. Technol.
          American Chemical Society (ACS)
          0013-936X
          1520-5851
          February 2004
          February 2004
          : 38
          : 3
          : 724-731
          Article
          10.1021/es034670r
          14968856
          © 2004
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