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      Prenatal inflammation-induced NF-κB dyshomeostasis contributes to renin-angiotensin system over-activity resulting in prenatally programmed hypertension in offspring

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          Abstract

          Studies involving the use of prenatally programmed hypertension have been shown to potentially contribute to prevention of essential hypertension (EH). Our previous research has demonstrated that prenatal inflammatory stimulation leads to offspring’s aortic dysfunction and hypertension in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study found that prenatal LPS exposure led to NF-κB dyshomeostasis from fetus to adult, which was characterized by PI3K-Akt activation mediated degradation of IκBα protein and impaired NF-κB self-negative feedback loop mediated less newly synthesis of IκBα mRNA in thoracic aortas ( gestational day 20, postnatal week 7 and 16). Prenatal or postnatal exposure of the IκBα degradation inhibitor, pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, effectively blocked NF-κB activation, endothelium dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activity in thoracic aortas, resulting in reduced blood pressure in offspring that received prenatal exposure to LPS. Surprisingly, NF-κB dyshomeostasis and RAS over-activity were only found in thoracic aortas but not in superior mesenteric arteries. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the early life NF-κB dyshomeostasis induced by prenatal inflammatory exposure plays an essential role in the development of EH through triggering RAS over-activity. We conclude that early life NF-κB dyshomeostasis is a key predictor of EH, and thus, NF-κB inhibition represents an effective interventional strategy for EH prevention.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data.

          Reliable information about the prevalence of hypertension in different world regions is essential to the development of national and international health policies for prevention and control of this condition. We aimed to pool data from different regions of the world to estimate the overall prevalence and absolute burden of hypertension in 2000, and to estimate the global burden in 2025. We searched the published literature from Jan 1, 1980, to Dec 31, 2002, using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies of retrieved articles. We included studies that reported sex-specific and age-specific prevalence of hypertension in representative population samples. All data were obtained independently by two investigators with a standardised protocol and data-collection form. Overall, 26.4% (95% CI 26.0-26.8%) of the adult population in 2000 had hypertension (26.6% of men [26.0-27.2%] and 26.1% of women [25.5-26.6%]), and 29.2% (28.8-29.7%) were projected to have this condition by 2025 (29.0% of men [28.6-29.4%] and 29.5% of women [29.1-29.9%]). The estimated total number of adults with hypertension in 2000 was 972 million (957-987 million); 333 million (329-336 million) in economically developed countries and 639 million (625-654 million) in economically developing countries. The number of adults with hypertension in 2025 was predicted to increase by about 60% to a total of 1.56 billion (1.54-1.58 billion). Hypertension is an important public-health challenge worldwide. Prevention, detection, treatment, and control of this condition should receive high priority.
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            The IkappaB-NF-kappaB signaling module: temporal control and selective gene activation.

            Nuclear localization of the transcriptional activator NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) is controlled in mammalian cells by three isoforms of NF-kappaB inhibitor protein: IkappaBalpha, -beta, and - epsilon. Based on simplifying reductions of the IkappaB-NF-kappaB signaling module in knockout cell lines, we present a computational model that describes the temporal control of NF-kappaB activation by the coordinated degradation and synthesis of IkappaB proteins. The model demonstrates that IkappaBalpha is responsible for strong negative feedback that allows for a fast turn-off of the NF-kappaB response, whereas IkappaBbeta and - epsilon function to reduce the system's oscillatory potential and stabilize NF-kappaB responses during longer stimulations. Bimodal signal-processing characteristics with respect to stimulus duration are revealed by the model and are shown to generate specificity in gene expression.
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              Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study.

              Arterial stiffness has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease in selected groups of patients. We evaluated whether arterial stiffness is a predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in a population-based study among apparently healthy subjects. The present study included 2835 subjects participating in the third examination phase of the Rotterdam Study. Arterial stiffness was measured as aortic pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to compute hazard ratios. During follow-up, 101 subjects developed coronary heart disease (mean follow-up period, 4.1 years), and 63 subjects developed a stroke (mean follow-up period, 3.2 years). The risk of cardiovascular disease increased with increasing aortic pulse wave velocity index. Hazard ratios and corresponding 95% CIs of coronary heart disease for subjects in the second and third tertiles of the aortic pulse wave velocity index compared with subjects in the reference category were 1.72 (0.91 to 3.24) and 2.45 (1.29 to 4.66), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. Corresponding estimates for stroke were 1.22 (0.55 to 2.70) and 2.28 (1.05 to 4.96). Estimates decreased only slightly after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness, the ankle-arm index, and pulse pressure. The aortic pulse wave velocity index provided additional predictive value above cardiovascular risk factors, measures of atherosclerosis, and pulse pressure. Carotid distensibility as measured in this study was not independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Aortic pulse wave velocity is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in apparently healthy subjects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                15 February 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Materia Medica, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University , Chongqing, China
                [2 ]Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio, USA
                [3 ]Jiangjin District Central Hospital , Chongqing, China
                [4 ]Suzhou Institute of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Soochow University , Suzhou, China
                [5 ]Department of Pharmacy, Hospital 159 of PLA , Zhumadian, Henan, China
                [6 ]Chongqing Center for Biomedicine and Medical Equipment, Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology , Chongqing, China
                [7 ]Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Manitoba , Apotex Center 750, McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
                [8 ]Joint Laboratory of Biological Psychiatry Between Shantou University Medical College and the College of Medicine University of Manitoba , Canada
                [9 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University , Chongqing, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep21692
                10.1038/srep21692
                4753429
                26877256
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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