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      In situ synthesis of Bi 2S 3 sensitized WO 3 nanoplate arrays with less interfacial defects and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance

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          Abstract

          In this study, Bi 2S 3 sensitive layer has been grown on the surface of WO 3 nanoplate arrays via an in situ approach. The characterization of samples were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results show that the Bi 2S 3 layer is uniformly formed on the surface of WO 3 nanoplates and less interfacial defects were observed in the interface between the Bi 2S 3 and WO 3. More importantly, the Bi 2S 3/WO 3 films as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells display the enhanced PEC performance compared with the Bi 2S 3/WO 3 films prepared by a sequential ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) method. In order to understand the reason for the enhanced PEC properties, the electron transport properties of the photoelectrodes were studied by using the transient photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). The Bi 2S 3/WO 3 films prepared via an in situ approach have a greater transient time constant and higher electron transit rate. This is most likely due to less interfacial defects for the Bi 2S 3/WO 3 films prepared via an in situ approach, resulting in a lower resistance and faster carrier transport in the interface between WO 3 and Bi 2S 3.

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          Most cited references21

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          Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode.

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            Nanostructured WO₃/BiVO₄ heterojunction films for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting.

            We report on a novel heterojunction WO(3)/BiVO(4) photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. The heterojunction films are prepared by solvothermal deposition of a WO(3) nanorod-array film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass, with subsequent deposition of a low bandgap, 2.4 eV, visible light responding BiVO(4) layer by spin-coating. The heterojunction structure offers enhanced photoconversion efficiency and increased photocorrosion stability. Compared to planar WO(3)/BiVO(4) heterojunction films, the nanorod-array films show significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to the high surface area and improved separation of the photogenerated charge at the WO(3)/BiVO(4) interface. Synthesis details are discussed, with film morphologies and structures characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.
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              Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications.

              Single-crystal one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor architectures are important in materials-based applications requiring a large surface area, morphological control, and superior charge transport. Titania has widespread utility in applications including photocatalysis, photochromism, photovoltaics, and gas sensors. While considerable efforts have focused on the preparation of 1D TiO2, no methods have been available to grow crystalline nanowire arrays directly onto transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrates, greatly limiting the performance of TiO2 photoelectrochemical devices. Herein, we present a straightforward low temperature method to prepare single crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire arrays up to 5 microm long on TCO glass via a non-polar solvent/hydrophilic substrate interfacial reaction under mild hydrothermal conditions. The as-prepared densely packed nanowires grow vertically oriented from the TCO glass substrate along the (110) crystal plane with a preferred (001) orientation. In a dye sensitized solar cell, N719 dye, using TiO2 nanowire arrays 2-3 microm long we achieve an AM 1.5 photoconversion efficiency of 5.02%.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                18 March 2016
                2016
                : 6
                : 23451
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University , Changsha 410083, China
                [2 ]College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University , Changsha 410128, China
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry, University College London , 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ, UK
                Author notes
                Article
                srep23451
                10.1038/srep23451
                4796909
                26988275
                380791a1-6d2c-4ef6-a4e0-22d8adb2d05a
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 28 October 2015
                : 07 March 2016
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