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      A Comparison of Directional Atherectomy with Coronary Angioplasty in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

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          Abstract

          Directional coronary atherectomy is a new technique of coronary revascularization by which atherosclerotic plaque is excised and retrieved from target lesions. With respect to the rate of restenosis and clinical outcomes, it is not known how this procedure compares with balloon angioplasty, which relies on dilation of the plaque and vessel wall. We compared the rate of restenosis after angioplasty with that after atherectomy. At 35 sites in the United States and Europe, 1012 patients were randomly assigned to either atherectomy (512 patients) or angioplasty (500 patients). The patients underwent coronary angiography at base line and again after six months; the paired angiograms were quantitatively assessed at one laboratory by investigators unaware of the treatment assignments. Stenosis was reduced to 50 percent or less more often with atherectomy than with angioplasty (89 percent vs. 80 percent; P < 0.001), and there was a greater immediate increase in vessel caliber (1.05 vs. 0.86 mm, P < 0.001). This was accompanied by a higher rate of early complications (11 percent vs. 5 percent, P < 0.001) and higher in-hospital costs ($11,904 vs $10,637; P = 0.006). At six months, the rate of restenosis was 50 percent for atherectomy and 57 percent for angioplasty (P = 0.06). However, the probability of death or myocardial infarction within six months was higher in the atherectomy group (8.6 percent vs. 4.6 percent, P = 0.007). Removing coronary artery plaque with atherectomy led to a larger luminal diameter and a small reduction in angiographic restenosis, the latter being confined largely to the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. However, atherectomy led to a higher rate of early complications, increased cost, and no apparent clinical benefit after six months of follow-up.

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          Most cited references22

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          Antisense c-myb oligonucleotides inhibit intimal arterial smooth muscle cell accumulation in vivo.

          Synthetic antisense oligonucleotides have been used to dissect gene function in vitro. Technical difficulties prevented the use of this approach for investigating the effect of gene products in vivo. Here we report the use of local delivery of antisense c-myb oligonucleotide to suppress intimal accumulation of rat carotid arterial smooth muscle cells. Our results suggest that antisense oligonucleotides can be used to define the in vivo biological role of specific macromolecules in the blood vessel wall and could potentially serve as a new class of therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disorders.
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            Generalized model of restenosis after conventional balloon angioplasty, stenting and directional atherectomy

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              Does the new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty? Results of the MERCATOR study: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Multicenter European Research Trial with Cilazapril after Angioplasty to Prevent Transluminal Coronary Obstruction and Restenosis (MERCATOR) Study Group.

              (1992)
              Cilazapril is a novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antiproliferative effects in the rat model after balloon injury. We conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the effect of cilazapril in angiographic restenosis prevention after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Patients received cilazapril 2.5 mg in the evening after successful PTCA and 5 mg b.i.d. for 6 months or matched placebo. In addition, all patients received aspirin for 6 months. Coronary angiograms before PTCA, after PTCA, and at 6-month follow-up were quantitatively analyzed. In 94% of 735 recruited patients, PTCA was successful and all inclusion and exclusion criteria were met. For the per-protocol analysis, quantitative angiography after PTCA and at follow-up was available in 595 patients who complied with the treatment regimen (309 control, 286 cilazapril). The mean difference in minimal coronary lumen diameter between post-PTCA and follow-up angiogram (primary end point) was -0.29 +/- 0.49 mm in the control group and -0.27 +/- 0.51 mm in the cilazapril group. Clinical events during 6-month follow-up, analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, were ranked according to the most serious clinical event ranging from death (control, two; cilazapril, three), nonfatal myocardial infarction (control, eight; cilazapril, 5), coronary revascularization (control, 51; cilazapril, 53), or recurrent angina requiring medical therapy (control, 67; cilazapril, 68) to none of the above (control, 224; cilazapril, 212). There were no significant differences in ranking. Long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition with cilazapril in a dose of 5 mg b.i.d. does not prevent restenosis and does not favorably influence the overall clinical outcome after PTCA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                July 22 1993
                July 22 1993
                : 329
                : 4
                : 221-227
                Article
                10.1056/NEJM199307223290401
                8316266
                381bc4bd-8c89-4e3e-841e-006816be5883
                © 1993
                History

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