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      Modifying an Implant: A Mini-review of Dental Implant Biomaterials

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          Abstract

          Dental implants have been used as far back as 2000BC, and since then have developed into highly sophisticated solutions for tooth replacement. It is becoming increasingly important for the materials used in dental implants to exhibit and maintain favorable long-term mechanical, biological and more recently, aesthetic properties. This review aims to assess the biomaterials used in modern dental implants, introducing their properties, and concentrating on modifications to improve these biomaterials. Focus is drawn to the prominent biomaterials, titanium (Ti) and zirconia due to their prevalence in implant dentistry. Additionally, novel coatings and materials with potential use as viable improvements or alternatives are reviewed. An effective dental biomaterial should osseointegrate, maintain structural integrity, resist corrosion and infection, and not cause systemic toxicity or cytotoxicity. Current materials such as bioactive glass offer protection against biofilm formation, and when combined with a titanium–zirconium (TiZr) alloy, provide a reliable combination of properties to represent a competitive alternative. Further long-term clinical studies are needed to inform the development of next-generation materials.

          Significance Statement

          Biomaterials have become essential for modern implants. A suitable implant biomaterial integrates into the body to perform a key function, whilst minimizing negative immune response. Focusing on dentistry, the use of dental implants for tooth replacement requires a balance between bodily response, mechanical structure and performance, and aesthetics. This mini-review addresses the use of biomaterials in dental implants with significant comparisons drawn between Ti and zirconia. Attention is drawn to optimizing surface modification processes and the additional use of coatings. Alternatives and novel developments are addressed, providing potential implications of combining biomaterials to form novel composites that combine and synergize the benefits of each material.

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          Most cited references 94

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          On the mechanisms of biocompatibility.

          The manner in which a mutually acceptable co-existence of biomaterials and tissues is developed and sustained has been the focus of attention in biomaterials science for many years, and forms the foundation of the subject of biocompatibility. There are many ways in which materials and tissues can be brought into contact such that this co-existence may be compromised, and the search for biomaterials that are able to provide for the best performance in devices has been based upon the understanding of all the interactions within biocompatibility phenomena. Our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility has been restricted whilst the focus of attention has been long-term implantable devices. In this paper, over 50 years of experience with such devices is analysed and it is shown that, in the vast majority of circumstances, the sole requirement for biocompatibility in a medical device intended for long-term contact with the tissues of the human body is that the material shall do no harm to those tissues, achieved through chemical and biological inertness. Rarely has an attempt to introduce biological activity into a biomaterial been clinically successful in these applications. This essay then turns its attention to the use of biomaterials in tissue engineering, sophisticated cell, drug and gene delivery systems and applications in biotechnology, and shows that here the need for specific and direct interactions between biomaterials and tissue components has become necessary, and with this a new paradigm for biocompatibility has emerged. It is believed that once the need for this change is recognised, so our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility will markedly improve.
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            Research on an Mg-Zn alloy as a degradable biomaterial.

            In this study a binary Mg-Zn magnesium alloy was researched as a degradable biomedical material. An Mg-Zn alloy fabricated with high-purity raw materials and using a clean melting process had very low levels of impurities. After solid solution treatment and hot working the grain size of the Mg-Zn alloy was finer and a uniform single phase was gained. The mechanical properties of this Mg-Zn alloy were suitable for implant applications, i.e. the tensile strength and elongation achieved were approximately 279.5MPa and 18.8%, respectively. The results of in vitro degradation experiments including electrochemical measurements and immersion tests revealed that the zinc could elevate the corrosion potential of Mg in simulated body fluid (SBF) and reduce the degradation rate. The corrosion products on the surface of Mg-Zn were hydroxyapatite (HA) and other Mg/Ca phosphates in SBF. In addition, the influence caused by in vitro degradation on mechanical properties was studied, and the results showed that the bending strength of Mg-Zn alloy dropped sharply in the earlier stage of degradation, while smoothly during the later period. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn was examined. The result 0-1 grade revealed that the Mg-Zn alloy was harmless to L-929 cells. For in vivo experiments, Mg-Zn rods were implanted into the femoral shaft of rabbits. The radiographs illustrated that the magnesium alloy could be gradually absorbed in vivo at about 2.32mm/yr degradation rate obtained by weight loss method. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained section around Mg-Zn rods suggested that there were newly formed bone surrounding the implant. HE stained tissue (containing heart, liver, kidney and spleen tissues) and the biochemical measurements, including serum magnesium, serum creatinine (CREA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and creatine kinase (CK) proved that the in vivo degradation of Mg-Zn did not harm the important organs. Moreover, no adverse effects of hydrogen generated by degradation had been observed and also no negative effects caused by the release of zinc were detected. These results suggested that the novel Mg-Zn binary alloy had good biocompatibility in vivo.
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              What future for zirconia as a biomaterial?

               J Chevalier (2006)
              The failure events of Prozyr femoral heads in 2001-2002 have opened a strong, controversial issue on the future of zirconia as a biomaterial. The aim of this paper is to review and analyze the current knowledge on ageing process and on its effect on the long term performance of implants in order to distinguish between scientific facts and speculation. Current state of the art shows the strong variability of zirconia to in vivo degradation, as a consequence of the strong influence of processing on ageing process. As different zirconia from different vendors have different process related microstructure, there is a need to assess their ageing sensitivity with advanced and accurate techniques, and ISO standards should be modified, especially to gain confidence from clinicians. There is a trend today to develop alumina-zirconia composites as an alternative to monolithic alumina and zirconia: the issue of ageing is also discussed for these composites.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BIOI
                BIO Integration
                BIOI
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                2712-0082
                2712-0074
                01 April 2021
                19 March 2021
                : 2
                : 1
                : 12-21
                Affiliations
                1School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia
                Author notes
                *Correspondence to: Martin P. Stewart, E-mail: martin.stewart@ 123456uts.edu.au
                Article
                bioi20200034
                10.15212/bioi-2020-0034
                Copyright © 2021 The Authors

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See https://bio-integration.org/copyright-and-permissions/

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                Self URI (journal-page): https://bio-integration.org/
                Categories
                Mini Review

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