The impact of the method of sterilization (steam vs. ethylene oxide, ETO) on indices of biocompatibility is investigated using polysulfone membranes. Eight patients were treated with a random choice of the high-flux membranes F60S (steam) and F60 (ETO) and the low-flux membrane F6 (ETO). Blood samples were taken prior to and 5, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min after the start of hemodialysis. White blood cell count, platelet count, and plasma concentrations of polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase, complements C3a and C5a, and β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin were determined. The dialysis procedure was associated with a significant decrease in white blood cell count and β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin level and a significant increase in polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase and complement C3a and C5a levels. However, the steam-sterilized F60S membrane had a significantly lower impact on the biocompatibility indices than the ETO-sterilized F60 and F6 membranes (p < 0.05 or p < 0.001 for the individual markers). We conclude that using steam instead of ETO for sterilization may improve the biocompatibility of membranes.