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      Water Immersion Increases Urinary Excretion of Aquaporin-2 in Healthy Humans

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          Many previous studies have shown that aquaporin-2 (AQP2), the vasopressin-regulated water channel, is excreted in the urine and that the excretion increases in response to vasopressin. Moreover, recently a close correlation between AQP2 excretion in urine and kidney AQP2 expression has been demonstrated, showing that urinary excretion of AQP2 is a reliable indicator for AQP-2 function. As head-out water immersion causes an expansion in the central vascular volume equal to that induced by 2 liters of saline, without modifying plasma composition, we used immersion in water to evaluate if the response to acute expansion of the central vascular volume could involve vasporessin (AVP) and AQP2. In healthy subjects, concentrations of plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and AVP, and urinary AQP2 were measured during a 2-hour immersion period. In all subjects, immersion caused a prompt and marked increase in immunoreactive ANF (23.0 ± 2.12 pg/ml at second hour vs. 2.17 ± 0.42 pg/ml at baseline) and in urinary excretion of AQP2 (23.9 ± 2.69 pmol/mg creatinine at second hour vs. 4.42 ± 0.14 pmol/mg creatinine at baseline), while a significant decrease was found in plasma AVP. Recovery was associated with a prompt return to pre-study levels. These findings demonstrate that heat-out water immersion stimulates urinary excretion of AQP2 in absence of an increase in plasma AVP.

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          Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in patients with diabetes insipidus.

          Urine-concentrating ability is regulated by vasopressin. Recently, the specific water-channel protein of the renal collecting duct, known as aquaporin-2, was cloned. However, it is not certain whether this molecule is responsive to vasopressin. We measured the urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 and its response to vasopressin in 11 normal subjects and 9 patients with central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The urine samples were collected during periods of dehydration and hydration and after the administration of vasopressin. Urine samples were analyzed for aquaporin-2 by the Western blot assay and immunogold labeling, and the amount of aquaporin-2 was determined by radioimmunoassay. Aquaporin-2 was detectable in the urine in both soluble and membrane-bound forms. In the five normal subjects tested, the mean (+/- SE) urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 was 11.2 +/- 2.2 pmol per milligram of creatinine after a period of dehydration, and it decreased to 3.9 +/- 1.9 pmol per milligram of creatinine (P = 0.03) during the second hour after a period of hydration. In the six other normal subjects, an infusion of desmopressin (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) increased the urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 from 0.8 +/- 0.3 to 11.2 +/- 1.6 pmol per milligram of creatinine (P < 0.001). The five patients with central diabetes insipidus also had increases in urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in response to the administration of vasopressin, but the four patients with X-linked or non-X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus did not. Aquaporin-2 is detectable in the urine, and changes in the urinary excretion of this protein can be used as an index of the action of vasopressin on the kidney.
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            Physiology and pathophysiology of the aquaporin-2 water channel


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              May 2000
              21 April 2000
              : 85
              : 1
              : 20-26
              Chair of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy
              45625 Nephron 2000;85:20–26
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 7
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