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      Flexural strength of mini-implants developed for Herbst appliance skeletal anchorage: a study in Minipigs br1 cadavers

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          OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to verify if mini-implant prototypes (MIP) developed for Herbst appliance anchorage are capable of withstanding orthopedic forces, and to determine whether the flexural strength of these MIP varies depending on the site of insertion (maxilla and mandible). METHODS: Thirteen MIP were inserted in three minipig cadavers (six in the maxilla and seven in the mandible). The specimens were prepared and submitted to mechanical testing. The mean and standard deviation were calculated for each region. A two-way Student's t test was used to compare the strength between the sites. A one-way Student's t test was performed to test the hypothesis. Orthopedic forces above 1.0 kgf were considered. RESULTS: The MIP supported flexural strength higher than 1.0 kgf (13.8 ± 2.3 Kg, in the posterior region of the maxilla and 20.5 ± 5.2 Kg in the anterior region of the mandible) with a significantly lower flexural strength in the anterior region of the mandible (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The MIP are capable of withstanding orthopedic forces, and are more resistant in the anterior region of the mandible than in the posterior region of the maxilla in Minipigs br1 cadavers.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO: o presente estudo foi delineado para verificar se protótipos de mini-implantes (PMI) desenvolvidos para a ancoragem esquelética do aparelho de Herbst são capazes de suportar forças ortopédicas e, também, determinar a variação da força de flexão desses PMI de acordo com o local de inserção (maxila ou mandíbula). MÉTODOS: após o cálculo do tamanho da amostra, 13 PMI foram colocados em três cadáveres de Minipigs br1 (seis na maxila e sete na mandíbula). Os corpos de prova foram preparados e submetidos a um teste mecânico. Cálculos da média e o do desvio-padrão foram realizados para cada região. O teste t de Student para duas amostras não pareadas foi utilizado para comparar a resistência dos PMI entre as regiões de inserção. O teste t de Student para uma amostra foi realizado para o teste de hipótese. Foram consideradas forças ortopédicas aquelas acima de 1,0kgf. RESULTADOS: os PMI foram capazes de suportar forças de flexão maiores que 1,0kgf (13,8 ± 2,3Kg na região posterior da maxila, e 20,5 ± 5,2Kg na região anterior da mandíbula), apresentando significativa menor força de flexão na região anterior da mandíbula (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: os PMI são capazes de suportar forças ortopédicas, sendo mais resistentes quando utilizados na região anterior da mandíbula do que na posterior da maxila, em cadáveres de Minipigs br1.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Mini-implant for orthodontic anchorage.

           R Kanomi (1997)
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            Insertional torque and axial pull-out strength of mini-implants in mandibles of dogs.

            The objectives of this study were to evaluate insertional torque of mini-implants (MI) for orthodontic anchorage, to compare their axial pull-out strength at 0 (T0), 15 (T15), and 60 (T60) days after placement, to determine initial and peri-implant cortical bone thickness, and to analyze the correlations among these variables.
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              Load-related bone modelling at the interface of orthodontic micro-implants.

              The purpose of this study was to determine the interface reaction of two different titanium micro-implant systems activated with different load regimens. A total of 200 micro-implants (100 Abso Anchor and 100 Dual Top) were placed in the mandible of eight Göttinger minipigs. Two implants each were immediately loaded in the opposite direction by various forces (100, 300 or 500 cN) through tension coils. Three different distances between the neck of the implant and the bone rim (1, 2, 3 mm) were used. The loads provided by superelastic tension coils (which are known to develop a virtually constant force) led to a range of tip moments 0-900 cN mm at the neck of implants. Non-loaded implants were used as a reference. Bone tissue responses were evaluated by histology, histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy after 22 and 70 days of loading. Implant loosening was present in the groups where the load reached 900 cN mm. No movement of implants through the bone was found in the experimental groups, for any of the applied loads. A direct bone-to-implant contact to various extents was observed at differently loaded implants. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the clinical and histological finding that implants (except when loaded at 900 cN mm) were well osseointegrated after 22 days. An increase in the bone-to-implant contact ratio was observed during the experimental period in the coronal part of the implants in most experimental groups. The difference reached a level of statistical significance at 500 cN mm (Abso Anchor) and 600 cN mm (Dual Top). We conclude that micro-implants can not only be loaded immediately without impairment of implant stability but many enhance bone formation at the interface when the load-related biomechanics do not exceed an upper limit of tip moment at the bone rim.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
                Dental Press J. Orthod.
                Dental Press International (Maringá )
                December 2013
                : 18
                : 6
                : 124-129
                [1 ] Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [4 ] University of Surrey United Kingdom
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