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      Maternal Anti-HPA-1a Antibodies Increase Endothelial Cell Apoptosis and Permeability


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          Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is attributed mainly to endothelial damage caused by binding of maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies to the αvβ3 integrin on endothelial cells (ECs). We examined the effect of anti-HPA-1a antibodies on EC function using 2 EC lines from different vascular beds, HMVEC of dermal origin and hCMEC/D3 of cerebral origin. Anti-HPA-1a sera significantly increased apoptosis in both HMVEC and hCMEC/D3 cells and permeability in hCMEC/D3 cells only. This increase in both apoptosis and permeability was significantly inhibited by a monoclonal anti-β3 antibody (SZ21) binding to the HPA-1a epitope. Our results indicate that (1) maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies impair EC function by increasing apoptosis and permeability and (2) ECs from different vascular beds vary in their susceptibility to pathological effects elicited by maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies on EC permeability. Examination of maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies for their effect on EC permeability may predict potential ICH associated with FNAIT.

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          The Integrin Antagonist Cilengitide Activates αVβ3, Disrupts VE-Cadherin Localization at Cell Junctions and Enhances Permeability in Endothelial Cells

          Cilengitide is a high-affinity cyclic pentapeptdic αV integrin antagonist previously reported to suppress angiogenesis by inducing anoikis of endothelial cells adhering through αVβ3/αVβ5 integrins. Angiogenic endothelial cells express multiple integrins, in particular those of the β1 family, and little is known on the effect of cilengitide on endothelial cells expressing αVβ3 but adhering through β1 integrins. Through morphological, biochemical, pharmacological and functional approaches we investigated the effect of cilengitide on αVβ3-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured on the β1 ligands fibronectin and collagen I. We show that cilengitide activated cell surface αVβ3, stimulated phosphorylation of FAK (Y397 and Y576/577), Src (S418) and VE-cadherin (Y658 and Y731), redistributed αVβ3 at the cell periphery, caused disappearance of VE-cadherin from cellular junctions, increased the permeability of HUVEC monolayers and detached HUVEC adhering on low-density β1 integrin ligands. Pharmacological inhibition of Src kinase activity fully prevented cilengitide-induced phosphorylation of Src, FAK and VE-cadherin, and redistribution of αVβ3 and VE-cadherin and partially prevented increased permeability, but did not prevent HUVEC detachment from low-density matrices. Taken together, these observations reveal a previously unreported effect of cilengitide on endothelial cells namely its ability to elicit signaling events disrupting VE-cadherin localization at cellular contacts and to increase endothelial monolayer permeability. These effects are potentially relevant to the clinical use of cilengitide as anticancer agent.
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            Monoclonal antibody--specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA): a new tool for the identification of platelet-reactive antibodies.

            The analysis of sera containing different platelet-reactive antibodies, eg, autoantibodies, platelet-specific alloantibodies like anti-PIA1, -PIA2, -Baka, and HLA antibodies, is still difficult. Recently, monoclonal antibodies against major platelet membrane constituents (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa and Ib and HLA class I molecule) have become available. In this report we describe a new assay that takes advantage of these highly specific reagents to investigate selectively platelet reactive antibodies against epitopes on different glycoproteins. The reliability and specificity of this assay is demonstrated with known platelet-reactive autoantibodies and alloantibodies (anti-PIA1, -Baka, -Pen). The discovery of a PIA2 antibody in a serum of a polytransfused patient underscores the efficiency of this technique. Possible applications of this assay are discussed in detail.
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              Inhibition of HPA-1a alloantibody-mediated platelet destruction by a deglycosylated anti-HPA-1a monoclonal antibody in mice: toward targeted treatment of fetal-alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

              Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is often caused by maternal alloantibodies against the human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a, which opsonizes fetal platelets (PLTs). Subsequent PLT destruction is mediated via the Fc part of the alloantibodies. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) SZ21 binds to the HPA-1a epitope and inhibits the binding of maternal alloantibodies. However, it also promotes complement activation and phagocytosis. Deglycosylation of antibodies abrogates the Fc-related effector functions. We modified the N-glycan of SZ21 by endoglycosidase F. The in vivo transplacental transport of N-glycan-modified (NGM)-SZ21 was not impaired. When injected into pregnant mice, both native-SZ21 and NGM-SZ21 were transported equally into fetal circulation (8.9% vs 8.7%, respectively, P = .58). Neither the binding properties of NGM-SZ21 to HPA-1a in surface plasmon resonance, nor the inhibition of anti-HPA-1a-induced PLT phagocytosis, were affected by N-glycan modification. NGM-SZ21 prevented PLT destruction induced by maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies in vivo in a mouse model (PLT clearance after 5 hours; 18% vs 62%, in the presence or absence of NGM-SZ21, respectively, P = .013). Deglycosylation of SZ21 abrogates Fc-effector functions without interfering with placental transport or the ability to block anti-HPA-1a binding. Humanized, deglycosylated anti-HPA-1a mAbs may represent a novel treatment strategy to prevent anti-HPA-1a-mediated PLT destruction in FNAIT.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                September 2021
                11 May 2021
                : 58
                : 5
                : 321-329
                [_a] aInstitute of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, National Hemophilia Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
                [_b] bThrombosis Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
                [_c] cSackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                515703 J Vasc Res 2021;58:321–329
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 15 July 2020
                : 03 March 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
                Rapid Communication

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia,Apoptosis,Anti-HPA-1a antibodies,Intracranial hemorrhage,Permeability


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