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      Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing—Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis


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          Common pandora ( Pagellus erythrinus) is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking genotype to phenotype, allowing fine-mapping of loci responsible for beneficial traits. In this study, we applied ddRAD methodology to identify polymorphic markers in a full-sib family of common pandora. Employing the Illumina MiSeq platform, we sampled and sequenced a size-selected genomic fraction of 99 individuals, which led to the identification of 920 polymorphic loci. Downstream mapping analysis resulted in the construction of 24 robust linkage groups, corresponding to the karyotype of the species. The common pandora linkage map showed varying degrees of conserved synteny with four other teleost genomes, namely the European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), and medaka ( Oryzias latipes), suggesting a conserved genomic evolution in Sparidae. Our work exploits the possibilities of genotyping by sequencing to gain novel insights into genome structure and evolution. Such information will boost the study of cultured species and will set the foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex evolutionary history of teleosts.

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          Most cited references24

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          SLAF-seq: An Efficient Method of Large-Scale De Novo SNP Discovery and Genotyping Using High-Throughput Sequencing

          Large-scale genotyping plays an important role in genetic association studies. It has provided new opportunities for gene discovery, especially when combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies. Here, we report an efficient solution for large-scale genotyping. We call it specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). SLAF-seq technology has several distinguishing characteristics: i) deep sequencing to ensure genotyping accuracy; ii) reduced representation strategy to reduce sequencing costs; iii) pre-designed reduced representation scheme to optimize marker efficiency; and iv) double barcode system for large populations. In this study, we tested the efficiency of SLAF-seq on rice and soybean data. Both sets of results showed strong consistency between predicted and practical SLAFs and considerable genotyping accuracy. We also report the highest density genetic map yet created for any organism without a reference genome sequence, common carp in this case, using SLAF-seq data. We detected 50,530 high-quality SLAFs with 13,291 SNPs genotyped in 211 individual carp. The genetic map contained 5,885 markers with 0.68 cM intervals on average. A comparative genomics study between common carp genetic map and zebrafish genome sequence map showed high-quality SLAF-seq genotyping results. SLAF-seq provides a high-resolution strategy for large-scale genotyping and can be generally applicable to various species and populations.
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            2b-RAD: a simple and flexible method for genome-wide genotyping.

            We describe 2b-RAD, a streamlined restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) genotyping method based on sequencing the uniform fragments produced by type IIB restriction endonucleases. Well-studied accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana were genotyped to validate the method's accuracy and to demonstrate fine-tuning of marker density as needed. The simplicity of the 2b-RAD protocol makes it particularly suitable for high-throughput genotyping as required for linkage mapping and profiling genetic variation in natural populations.
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              OneMap: software for genetic mapping in outcrossing species.

              OneMap is an environment for constructing linkage maps of outcrossing plant species, using full-sib families derived from two outbred parents. The analyses are performed using a novel methodology based on the maximum likelihood approach for simultaneous estimation of linkage and linkage phases (Wu et al. 2002), which has been successfully applied to sugarcane (Garcia et al. 2006). It is implemented as a set of functions for the freely distributed software R, and handles pairwise marker analysis, marker ordering and map refinement. The software is freely available at http://www.ciagri.usp.br/ approximately aafgarci/OneMap/.

                Author and article information

                G3 (Bethesda)
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                28 December 2015
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                : 509-519
                [* ]Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Heraklion, 71500, Greece
                []Department of Biology, University of Crete, Heraklion, 70013, Greece
                []Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland, FK9 4LA, United Kingdom
                [§ ]Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Inspection of Agricultural Products, Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Sindos, 57400, Greece
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding author: Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Gournes Thalassocosmos, Gournes Pediados, Heraklion, 71003, Greece. E-mail: tsigeno@ 123456hcmr.gr
                Copyright © 2016 Manousaki et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 56, Pages: 11

                sparidae,rad sequencing,ddrad,synteny,aquaculture
                sparidae, rad sequencing, ddrad, synteny, aquaculture


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