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      Veränderungen in der Genexpression fremdstoffmetabolisierender Enzyme und Bedeutung genetischer Polymorphismen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von HIV-Virustatika

      , 1

      , Prof. Dr. (Referee), , Prof. Dr. med. (Referee)

      Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I, Humboldt-Universität

      Biologie, Cytochrom P450, MDR1, HIV, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, P-Glykoprotein, Antiretrovirale Therapie, HEPG2, COLO-320, HELA, Alprazolam, Protease Inhibitoren, Nukleosidische Reverse Transkriptase Inhibitoren, Nicht- Nukleosidische Reverse Transkriptase Inhibitoren, RT-PCR, cytochrome P450, MDR1, HIV, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, P-Glycoprotein, antiretroviral therapy, HEPG2, COLO-320, HELA, alprazolam, protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, RT-PCR, Biowissenschaften, Biologie, WG 4050, XD 8000, VS 8750

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          Abstract

          Die Therapie der HIV Infektion besteht aus Kombination mehrerer antiretroviraler Substanzen und birgt ein erhöhtes Risiko an Arzneimittelwechselwirkungen. Das bekannte Problem der Virusresistenz kann zudem durch Enzyminduktion begünstigt werden. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit lag in Untersuchungen zu Einflüssen der Virustatika auf die Expression von Cytochrom P450 Enzymen: 1A1, 1B1, 3A4 sowie der P-Glykoproteins (MDR1) an immortalisierten Zellsystemen. Die Protease Inhibitoren Indinavir, Nelfinavir, Ritonavir und Saquinavir induzierten die Regulation der mRNA Expression über den Aryl-Kohlenwasserstoff-Rezeptor (AhR) und den Pregnan-X-Rezeptor (PXR) dosisabhängig und signifikant. Die Nukleosidischen Reverse Transkriptase Inhibitoren Zalcitabin, Zidovudin und Lamivudin sowie der Nicht-Nukleosidische Inhibitor Nevirapin zeigten induktive Eigenschaften nur für die AhR Zielgene CYP1A1 und CYP1B1. Amprenavir und Efavirenz aktivierten die PXR-Regulation. Die möglichen Auswirkungen der Induktion der untersuchten Gene wurden ausführlich diskutiert. Die molekularen Grundlagen der interindividuell variierenden Aktivität von CYP3A wurden in einer Probandenstudie untersucht. Es wurden die mRNA Expression in den Leukozyten, die Aktivität des Enzyms und einige bekannte Polymorphismen unter Einwirkung von Rifampicin untersucht und diskutiert.

          Abstract

          The therapy of HIV infection requires a combination of several antiretroviral substances accompanying risk factors for drug-drug interactions. Moreover, virus resistance can be promoted by enzyme induction caused by antiretroviral drugs. The aim of the study was to investigate the influences of antiretroviral substances on the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes: 1A1, 1B1, 3A4 and p-glycoprotein (MDR1) using immortalized cell systems. The protease inhibitors indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir induced significantly the regulation of mRNA expression through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the pregnane-x-receptor (PXR) in a concentration-dependent manner. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors zalcitabine, zidovudine and lamivudine and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine showed inductive properties only for the AhR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1.Amprenavir and efavirenz activated the PXR target genes. Potentially effects of the described induction are discussed. In a second part of the work, the molecular mechanisms of the individual varying activity of the CYP3A enzyme were investigated applying an in vivo study. CYP3A4 mRNA expression and rifampicin mediated induction in leucocytes were correlated with systemic enzyme activity under induction and known polymorphisms.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter.

          Considerable evidence has accumulated indicating that the multidrug transporter or P-glycoprotein plays a role in the development of simultaneous resistance to multiple cytotoxic drugs in cancer cells. In recent years, various approaches such as mutational analyses and biochemical and pharmacological characterization have yielded significant information about the relationship of structure and function of P-glycoprotein. However, there is still considerable controversy about the mechanism of action of this efflux pump and its function in normal cells. This review summarizes current research on the structure-function analysis of P-glycoprotein, its mechanism of action, and facts and speculations about its normal physiological role.
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            The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions.

            The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. Although expression of the CYP3A4 gene is known to be induced in response to a variety of compounds, the mechanism underlying this induction, which represents a basis for drug interactions in patients, has remained unclear. We report the identification of a human (h) orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 promoter and is activated by a range of drugs known to induce CYP3A4 expression. Comparison of hPXR with the recently cloned mouse PXR reveals marked differences in their activation by certain drugs, which may account in part for the species-specific effects of compounds on CYP3A gene expression. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the ability of disparate chemicals to induce CYP3A4 levels and, furthermore, provide a basis for developing in vitro assays to aid in predicting whether drugs will interact in humans.
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              P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier of mice influences the brain penetration and pharmacological activity of many drugs.

              The mouse mdr1a (also called mdr3) P-GP is abundant in the blood-brain barrier, and its absence in mdr1a (-/-) mice leads to highly increased levels of the drugs ivermectin, vinblastine, digoxin, and cyclosporin A in the brain. We show here that the drugs loperamide, domperidone, and ondansetron are transported substrates for the mouse mdr1a P-GP and its human homologue MDR1. Phenytoin is a relatively weaker substrate for each, and the drugs haloperidol, clozapine, and flunitrazepam are transported hardly or not at all. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated that the relative brain penetration of radiolabeled ondansetron and loperamide (and their metabolites) is increased four- and sevenfold, respectively, in mdr1a (-/-) mice. A pilot toxicity study with oral loperamide showed that this peripherally acting antidiarrheal agent gains potent opiatelike activity in the central nervous system of mdr1a (-/-) mice. mdr1a (-/-) mice also showed increased sensitivity to neurolepticlike side effects of oral domperidone. These results point to the possible role that the drug-transporting P-GP(s) may play in the clinical use of many drugs, especially those with potential targets in the central nervous system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I, Humboldt-Universität (kvv )
                1 October 2003
                13 April 2005
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I
                Article
                oai:HUBerlin.de:10670

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