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      Chronic pain management in the obese patient: a focused review of key challenges and potential exercise solutions

      , ,

      Journal of Pain Research

      Dove Medical Press

      exercise, inflammation, kinesiophobia, obese, pain

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          Abstract

          In obese persons, general and specific musculoskeletal pain is common. Emerging evidence suggests that obesity modulates pain via several mechanisms such as mechanical loading, inflammation, and psychological status. Pain in obesity contributes to deterioration of physical ability, health-related quality of life, and functional dependence. We present the accumulating evidence showing the interrelationships of mechanical stress, inflammation, and psychological characteristics on pain. While acute exercise may transiently exacerbate pain symptoms, regular participation in exercise can lower pain severity or prevalence. Aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or multimodal exercise programs (combination of the two types) can reduce joint pain in young and older obese adults in the range of 14%–71.4% depending on the study design and intervention used. While published attrition rates with regular exercise are high (∼50%), adherence to exercise may be enhanced with modification to exercise including the accumulation of several exercise bouts rather than one long session, reducing joint range of motion, and replacing impact with nonimpact activity. This field would benefit from rigorous comparative efficacy studies of exercise intensity, frequency, and mode on specific and general musculoskeletal pain in young and older obese persons.

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          Most cited references 92

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          Obesity and osteoarthritis in knee, hip and/or hand: An epidemiological study in the general population with 10 years follow-up

          Background Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) in knee(s). However, the relationship between obesity and OA in hand(s) and hip(s) remains controversial and needs further investigation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on incident osteoarthritis (OA) in hip, knee, and hand in a general population followed in 10 years. Methods A total of 1854 people aged 24–76 years in 1994 participated in a Norwegian study on musculoskeletal pain in both 1994 and 2004. Participants with OA or rheumatoid arthritis in 1994 and those above 74 years in 1994 were excluded, leaving n = 1675 for the analyses. The main outcome measure was OA diagnosis at follow-up based on self-report. Obesity was defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 30 and above. Results At 10-years follow-up the incidence rates were 5.8% (CI 4.3–7.3) for hip OA, 7.3% (CI 5.7–9.0) for knee OA, and 5.6% (CI 4.2–7.1) for hand OA. When adjusting for age, gender, work status and leisure time activities, a high BMI (> 30) was significantly associated with knee OA (OR 2.81; 95%CI 1.32–5.96), and a dose-response relationship was found for this association. Obesity was also significantly associated with hand OA (OR 2.59; 1.08–6.19), but not with hip OA (OR 1.11; 0.41–2.97). There was no statistically significant interaction effect between BMI and gender, age or any of the other confounding variables. Conclusion A high BMI was significantly associated with knee OA and hand OA, but not with hip OA.
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            A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. The Fitness Arthritis and Seniors Trial (FAST).

            To determine the effects of structured exercise programs on self-reported disability in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, single-blind clinical trial lasting 18 months conducted at 2 academic medical centers. A total of 439 community-dwelling adults, aged 60 years or older, with radiographically evident knee osteoarthritis, pain, and self-reported physical disability. An aerobic exercise program, a resistance exercise program, and a health education program. The primary outcome was self-reported disability score (range, 1-5). The secondary outcomes were knee pain score (range, 1-6), performance measures of physical function, x-ray score, aerobic capacity, and knee muscle strength. A total of 365 (83%) participants completed the trial. Overall compliance with the exercise prescription was 68% in the aerobic training group and 70% in the resistance training group. Postrandomization, participants in the aerobic exercise group had a 10% lower adjusted mean (+/- SE) score on the physical disability questionnaire (1.71 +/- 0.03 vs 1.90 +/- 0.04 units; P<.001), a 12% lower score on the knee pain questionnaire (2.1 +/- 0.05 vs 2.4 +/- 0.05 units; P=.001), and performed better (mean [+/- SE]) on the 6-minute walk test (1507 +/- 16 vs 1349 +/- 16 ft; P<.001), mean (+/-SE) time to climb and descend stairs (12.7 +/- 0.4 vs 13.9 +/- 0.4 seconds; P=.05), time to lift and carry 10 pounds (9.1 +/- 0.2 vs 10.0 +/- 0.1 seconds; P<.001), and mean (+/-SE) time to get in and out of a car (8.7 +/- 0.3 vs 10.6 +/- 0.3 seconds; P<.001) than the health education group. The resistance exercise group had an 8% lower score on the physical disability questionnaire (1.74 +/- 0.04 vs 1.90 +/- 0.03 units; P=.003), 8% lower pain score (2.2 +/- 0.06 vs 2.4 +/- 0.05 units; P=.02), greater distance on the 6-minute walk (1406 +/- 17 vs 1349 +/- 16 ft; P=.02), faster times on the lifting and carrying task (9.3 +/- 0.1 vs 10.0 +/- 0.16 seconds; P=.001), and the car task (9.0 +/- 0.3 vs 10.6 +/- 0.3 seconds; P=.003) than the health education group. There were no differences in x-ray scores between either exercise group and the health education group. Older disabled persons with osteoarthritis of the knee had modest improvements in measures of disability, physical performance, and pain from participating in either an aerobic or a resistance exercise program. These data suggest that exercise should be prescribed as part of the treatment for knee osteoarthritis.
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              Weight loss reduces knee-joint loads in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis.

              To determine the relationship between change in body mass and knee-joint moments and forces during walking in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA) following an 18-month clinical trial of diet and exercise. Data were obtained from 142 sedentary, overweight, and obese older adults with self-reported disability and radiographic evidence of knee OA who underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Gait kinetic outcome variables included peak knee-joint forces and peak internal knee-joint moments. Mixed regression models were created to predict followup kinetic values, using followup body mass as the primary explanatory variable. Baseline body mass was used as a covariate, and thus followup body mass was a surrogate measure for change in body mass (i.e., weight loss). There was a significant direct association between followup body mass and peak followup values of compressive force (P = 0.001), resultant force (P = 0.002), abduction moment (P = 0.03), and medial rotation moment (P = 0.02). A weight reduction of 9.8 N (1 kg) was associated with reductions of 40.6 N and 38.7 N in compressive and resultant forces, respectively. Thus, each weight-loss unit was associated with an approximately 4-unit reduction in knee-joint forces. In addition, a reduction in body weight of 9.8 N (1 kg) was associated with a 1.4% reduction (0.496 Nm) in knee abduction moment. Our results indicate that each pound of weight lost will result in a 4-fold reduction in the load exerted on the knee per step during daily activities. Accumulated over thousands of steps per day, a reduction of this magnitude would appear to be clinically meaningful.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2015
                09 February 2015
                : 8
                : 63-77
                Affiliations
                Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Division of Research, Interdisciplinary Center for Musculoskeletal Training and Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Heather K Vincent, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Division of Research, UF Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Institute (OSMI), PO Box 112727, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA, Tel +1 352 273 7459, Fax +1 352 273 7388, Email vincehk@ 123456ortho.ufl.edu
                Article
                jpr-8-063
                10.2147/JPR.S55360
                4332294
                © 2015 Zdziarski et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                pain, obese, kinesiophobia, inflammation, exercise

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